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      Internal Filtration-Enhanced Hemodialysis Is a Cost-Effective Treatment in View of Solute Removal

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Cost-effective analysis, Internal filtration, Hemodialysis, Hemodiafiltration

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          By modifying dialyzer module design, internal filtration (IF) within a dialyzer is enhanced to increase convective solute transport. Thus, it can be an alternative to hemodiafiltration with no requirement of substitution fluid or additional complex machines. Cost-effective analysis was conducted in three modes of therapy: high-flux hemodialysis, on-line hemodiafiltration and IF-enhanced hemodialysis. In IF-enhanced hemodialysis, cost-effectiveness of small solute removal is comparable with high-flux hemodialysis and that of β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin removal is the best. It is concluded that IF-enhanced hemodialysis is the most cost-effective therapy mode in comprehensive overall solute removal.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Switch from conventional to high-flux membrane reduces the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome and mortality of hemodialysis patients.

          The use of a high-flux membrane, which eliminates larger molecular weight solutes with better biocompatibility, has steadily increased since the discovery of beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) amyloidosis in 1985. The long-term effects of a dialyzer membrane on morbidity and mortality are not completely understood. To examine the membrane effect as a factor of carpal tunnel syndrome onset and mortality, multivariate Cox regression analysis with time-dependent covariate was conducted on 819 patients from March 1968 to November 1994 at a single center. Two hundred and forty-eight of the patients were either switched from the conventional to high-flux membrane or treated only with a high-flux membrane. Fifty-one patients underwent a CTS operation and 206 died. Membrane status (on high-flux or on conventional) was considered as time-dependent covariate and risk was adjusted for age, gender, type of renal disease and calendar year of dialysis initiation. The relative risk of CTS was reduced to 0.503 (P < 0.05) and mortality 0.613 (P < 0.05) by dialysis on the high-flux membrane, compared to the conventional membrane. Serial measurements of beta 2m indicated significantly lower beta 2m to persist in patients on the high-flux membrane. The high-flux membrane decreased the risk of morbidity and mortality substantially. Larger molecule elimination was shown important not only for preventing beta 2m amyloidosis, but for prolonging survival of dialysis patients as well.
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            Effects of ultrapure dialysis fluid on nutritional status and inflammatory parameters.

            Malnutrition and chronic systemic inflammatory response syndrome not only coexist in uraemia, but may also have a bi-directional cause-and-effect relationship. To evaluate the role of dialysate-related cytokine induction in inflammatory response and nutritional status, we conducted a prospective comparison of two dialysis fluids differing in their microbiological quality. Forty-eight early haemodialysis patients were assigned to either treatment with conventional (potentially microbiologically contaminated) or on-line produced ultrapure dialysis fluid. Study parameters were bacterial growth, markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6), and parameters of nutritional status (estimated dry weight, upper mid-arm muscle circumference, serum albumin concentration, insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, and protein catabolic rate). Patients were followed for 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and treatment characteristics, degree of bacterial contamination of the dialysate, markers of systemic inflammation, or parameters of nutritional status among the two treatment groups at recruitment. Changing from conventional to ultrapure dialysis fluid reduced significantly the levels of IL-6 (19+/-3 pg/ml to 13+/-3 pg/ml) and CRP (1.0+/- 0.4 mg/dl to 0.5+/-0.2 mg/dl), and resulted in significant increases in estimated dry body weight, mid-arm muscle circumference, serum albumin concentration, levels of the humoral factors, and in protein catabolic rate after 12 months. Continuous use of conventional dialysis fluid (median 40-60 c.f.u./ml) was not associated with significant alterations in markers of inflammation (IL-6 21+/-4 pg/ml vs 24+/-6 pg/ml, CRP 0.9+/-0.3 mg/dl vs 1.1+/-0.4 mg/dl) or of nutritional status at any time of the study. All differences in systemic inflammation and nutritional parameters observed during the study period (from recruitment to month 12) were significant between the two patient groups. Cytokine induction by microbiologically contaminated dialysis fluid has a negative impact on nutritional parameters of early haemodialysis patients. The microbiological quality of the dialysis fluid represents an independent determinant of the nutritional status in addition to known factors, such as dose of dialysis and biocompatibility of the dialyser membrane. Ultrapure dialysis fluid adds to the cost of the dialytic treatment, but may improve the nutritional status in long-term haemodialysis patients.
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              Defining the Microbiological Quality of Dialysis Fluid


                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                27 January 2005
                : 22
                : Suppl 2
                : 36-39
                Koda Medical and Dialysis Clinic, Niigata, Japan
                81873 Blood Purif 2004;22(suppl 2):36–39
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 13, Pages: 4
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81873
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