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Transcriptional Profiling of Disease-Induced Host Responses in Bovine Tuberculosis and the Identification of Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers

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      Abstract

      Bovine tuberculosis (bTb) remains a major and economically important disease of livestock. Improved ante-mortem diagnostic tools would help to underpin novel control strategies. The definition of biomarkers correlating with disease progression could have impact on the rational design of novel diagnostic approaches for bTb. We have used a murine bTb model to identify promising candidates in the host transcriptome post-infection. RNA from in vitro-stimulated splenocytes and lung cells from BALB/c mice infected aerogenically with Mycobacterium bovis were probed with high-density microarrays to identify possible biomarkers of disease. In antigen-stimulated splenocytes we found statistically significant differential regulation of 1109 genes early (3 days) after infection and 1134 at a later time-point post-infection (14 days). 618 of these genes were modulated at both time points. In lung cells, 282 genes were significantly modulated post-infection. Amongst the most strongly up-regulated genes were: granzyme A, granzyme B, cxcl9, interleukin-22, and ccr6. The expression of 14 out of the most up-regulated genes identified in the murine studies was evaluated using in vitro with antigen-stimulated PBMC from uninfected and naturally infected cattle. We show that the expression of cxcl9, cxcl10, granzyme A and interleukin-22 was significantly increased in PBMC from infected cattle compared to naïve animals following PPD stimulation in vitro. Thus, murine transcriptome analysis can be used to predict immunological responses in cattle allowing the prioritisation of CXCLl9, CXCL10, Granzyme A and IL-22 as potential additional readout systems for the ante-mortem diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

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      Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

       K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
      The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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        An essential role for interferon gamma in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

        Tuberculosis, a major health problem in developing countries, has reemerged in recent years in many industrialized countries. The increased susceptibility of immunocompromised individuals to tuberculosis, and many experimental studies indicate that T cell- mediated immunity plays an important role in resistance. The lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is thought to be a principal mediator of macrophage activation and resistance to intracellular pathogens. Mice have been developed which fail to produce IFN-gamma (gko), because of a targeted disruption of the gene for IFN-gamma. Upon infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although they develop granulomas, gko mice fail to produce reactive nitrogen intermediates and are unable to restrict the growth of the bacilli. In contrast to control mice, gko mice exhibit heightened tissue necrosis and succumb to a rapid and fatal course of tuberculosis that could be delayed, but not prevented, by treatment with exogenous recombinant IFN-gamma.
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          IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge.

          Interferon-gamma is key in limiting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here we show that vaccination triggered an accelerated interferon-gamma response by CD4(+) T cells in the lung during subsequent M. tuberculosis infection. Interleukin 23 (IL-23) was essential for the accelerated response, for early cessation of bacterial growth and for establishment of an IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cell population in the lung. The recall response of the IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cell population occurred concurrently with expression of the chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11. Depletion of IL-17 during challenge reduced the chemokine expression and accumulation of CD4(+) T cells producing interferon-gamma in the lung. We propose that vaccination induces IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells that populate the lung and, after challenge, trigger the production of chemokines that recruit CD4(+) T cells producing interferon-gamma, which ultimately restrict bacterial growth.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]TB Research Group, Animal Health & Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom
            [2 ]Tuberculosis Immunology Group, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
            Fundació Institut d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. CIBERES, Spain
            Author notes

            Conceived and designed the experiments: EAC PJH HMV. Performed the experiments: EAC PJH DAK AOW BVR. Analyzed the data: EAC PJH HMV. Wrote the paper: EAC PJH AL HMV.

            Contributors
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            1932-6203
            2012
            16 February 2012
            : 7
            : 2
            3281027
            22359547
            PONE-D-11-21617
            10.1371/journal.pone.0030626
            (Editor)
            Aranday-Cortes et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
            Counts
            Pages: 11
            Categories
            Research Article
            Biology
            Immunology
            Microbiology
            Model Organisms
            Animal Models
            Medicine
            Diagnostic Medicine
            Pathology
            General Pathology
            Infectious Diseases
            Bacterial Diseases
            Tuberculosis
            Veterinary Science
            Veterinary Diseases

            Uncategorized

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