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      ERK/MAPK signalling pathway and tumorigenesis

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          Abstract

          Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are key signalling pathways that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and stress responses. The MAPK pathway includes three main kinases, MAPK kinase kinase, MAPK kinase and MAPK, which activate and phosphorylate downstream proteins. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine-threonine kinases that regulate cellular signalling under both normal and pathological conditions. ERK expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation plays a major role in cancer development and progression. The Ras/Raf/MAPK (MEK)/ERK pathway is the most important signalling cascade among all MAPK signal transduction pathways, and plays a crucial role in the survival and development of tumour cells. The present review discusses recent studies on Ras and ERK pathway members. With respect to processes downstream of ERK activation, the role of ERK in tumour proliferation, invasion and metastasis is highlighted, and the role of the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway in tumour extracellular matrix degradation and tumour angiogenesis is emphasised.

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          Most cited references 97

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          The protein kinase complement of the human genome.

           G. Manning (2002)
          We have catalogued the protein kinase complement of the human genome (the "kinome") using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. This provides a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states, as well as a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family. We identify 518 putative protein kinase genes, of which 71 have not previously been reported or described as kinases, and we extend or correct the protein sequences of 56 more kinases. New genes include members of well-studied families as well as previously unidentified families, some of which are conserved in model organisms. Classification and comparison with model organism kinomes identified orthologous groups and highlighted expansions specific to human and other lineages. We also identified 106 protein kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping revealed several small clusters of kinase genes and revealed that 244 kinases map to disease loci or cancer amplicons.
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            Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

            A number of different intracellular signaling pathways have been shown to be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. These activation events include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, 70 kDa S6 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C-gamma, and the Jak/STAT pathways. The precise role of each of these pathways in cell signaling remains to be resolved, but studies on the differentiation of mammalian PC12 cells in tissue culture and the genetics of cell fate determination in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis suggest that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-regulated) MAPK pathway may be sufficient for these cellular responses. Experiments with PC12 cells also suggest that the duration of ERK activation is critical for cell signaling decisions.
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              Roles of matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression and their pharmacological targeting.

              Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) consist of a multigene family of zinc-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling endopeptidases implicated in pathological processes, such as carcinogenesis. In this regard, their activity plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and the multistep processes of invasion and metastasis, including proteolytic degradation of ECM, alteration of the cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, migration and angiogenesis. The underlying premise of the current minireview is that MMPs are able to proteolytically process substrates in the extracellular milieu and, in so doing, promote tumor progression. However, certain members of the MMP family exert contradicting roles at different stages during cancer progression, depending among other factors on the tumor stage, tumor site, enzyme localization and substrate profile. MMPs are therefore amenable to therapeutic intervention by synthetic and natural inhibitors, providing perspectives for future studies. Multiple therapeutic agents, called matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) have been developed to target MMPs, attempting to control their enzymatic activity. Even though clinical trials with these compounds do not show the expected results in most cases, the field of MMPIs is ongoing. This minireview critically evaluates the role of MMPs in relation to cancer progression, and highlights the challenges, as well as future prospects, for the design, development and efficacy of MMPIs. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Exp Ther Med
                Exp Ther Med
                ETM
                Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
                D.A. Spandidos
                1792-0981
                1792-1015
                March 2020
                15 January 2020
                15 January 2020
                : 19
                : 3
                : 1997-2007
                Affiliations
                Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, College of Medicine, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314000, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Professor Yan-Jun Guo, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, College of Medicine, Jiaxing University, 118 Jiahang Road, Jiaxing, Zhejiang 314001, P.R. China, E-mail: yanjun_guo@ 123456163.com
                Article
                ETM-0-0-8454
                10.3892/etm.2020.8454
                7027163
                Copyright: © Guo et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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