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          As the importance of building indoor environments has increased recently due to the COVID-19 pandemic, so has the research on the interrelationship among daylight, human health, and building design. More researchers are studying how daylight affects human health and whether currently known daylighting metrics target human health in addition to building environmental performance. This article provides an updated review of the current review of the literature in the field of daylighting design and human health, particularly as it relates to the impact of daylighting on circadian rhythm, sleep quality and performance. The main objective for this study is to analyze the interrelationships between daylight, health, and design. The review of these articles reveals eight different factors relevant to daylight, in terms of the way daylight impacts people’s health, namely light spectrum, light levels, timing and duration of exposure to light. In terms of health impact, these articles outline direct and indirect health outcomes. In addition, our review of the existing literature indicates that there is a lack of proper daylighting metrics as far as design applications.

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          The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

          Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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            The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0.

            Recently, Ware and Sherbourne published a new short-form health survey, the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), consisting of 36 items included in long-form measures developed for the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 taps eight health concepts: physical functioning, bodily pain, role limitations due to physical health problems, role limitations due to personal or emotional problems, general mental health, social functioning, energy/fatigue, and general health perceptions. It also includes a single item that provides an indication of perceived change in health. The SF-36 items and scoring rules are distributed by MOS Trust, Inc. Strict adherence to item wording and scoring recommendations is required in order to use the SF-36 trademark. The RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (distributed by RAND) includes the same items as those in the SF-36, but the recommended scoring algorithm is somewhat different from that of the SF-36. Scoring differences are discussed here and new T-scores are presented for the 8 multi-item scales and two factor analytically-derived physical and mental health composite scores.
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              The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): a study of concurrent and construct validity.

              The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed to measure health-related physical activity (PA) in populations. The short version of the IPAQ has been tested extensively and is now used in many international studies. The present study aimed to explore the validity characteristics of the long-version IPAQ. Forty-six voluntary healthy male and female subjects (age, mean +/- standard deviation: 40.7 +/- 10.3 years) participated in the study. PA indicators derived from the long, self-administered IPAQ were compared with data from an activity monitor and a PA log book for concurrent validity, and with aerobic fitness, body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat for construct validity. Strong positive relationships were observed between the activity monitor data and the IPAQ data for total PA (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001) and vigorous PA (rho = 0.71, P < 0.001), but a weaker relationship for moderate PA (rho = 0.21, P = 0.051). Calculated MET-h day(-1) from the PA log book was significantly correlated with MET-h day(-1) from the IPAQ (rho = 0.67, P < 0.001). A weak correlation was observed between IPAQ data for total PA and both aerobic fitness (rho = 0.21, P = 0.051) and BMI (rho = 0.25, P = 0.009). No significant correlation was observed between percentage body fat and IPAQ variables. Bland-Altman analysis suggested that the inability of activity monitors to detect certain types of activities might introduce a source of error in criterion validation studies. The long, self-administered IPAQ questionnaire has acceptable validity when assessing levels and patterns of PA in healthy adults.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                Fall 2022
                20 December 2022
                : 17
                : 4
                : 151-178
                [1. ] School of Architecture, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA; juklee531@gmail.com (J.L.); boubekri@ illinois.edu (M.B.)
                [2. ] Department of Future & Smart Construction Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, 283, Goyangdae-Ro, Goyang-Si, South Korea;
                [3. ] Department of Architecture, Inha University,100 Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Incheon 22212, South Korea
                Author notes
                * Correspondence: jypark@ 123456inha.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-32-860-7583
                Page count
                Pages: 28
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.journalofgreenbuilding.com
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering
                Natural light,Performance,Wellbeing,Human comfort,Daylighting,Sustainability


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