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      3D Proximal Tubule Tissues Recapitulate Key Aspects of Renal Physiology to Enable Nephrotoxicity Testing

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          Abstract

          Due to its exposure to high concentrations of xenobiotics, the kidney proximal tubule is a primary site of nephrotoxicity and resulting attrition in the drug development pipeline. Current pre-clinical methods using 2D cell cultures and animal models are unable to fully recapitulate clinical drug responses due to limited in vitro functional lifespan, or species-specific differences. Using Organovo's proprietary 3D bioprinting platform, we have developed a fully cellular human in vitro model of the proximal tubule interstitial interface comprising renal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells to enable more accurate prediction of tissue-level clinical outcomes. Histological characterization demonstrated formation of extensive microvascular networks supported by endogenous extracellular matrix deposition. The epithelial cells of the 3D proximal tubule tissues demonstrated tight junction formation and expression of renal uptake and efflux transporters; the polarized localization and function of P-gp and SGLT2 were confirmed. Treatment of 3D proximal tubule tissues with the nephrotoxin cisplatin induced loss of tissue viability and epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion, and cimetidine rescued these effects, confirming the role of the OCT2 transporter in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The tissues also demonstrated a fibrotic response to TGFβ as assessed by an increase in gene expression associated with human fibrosis and histological verification of excess extracellular matrix deposition. Together, these results suggest that the bioprinted 3D proximal tubule model can serve as a test bed for the mechanistic assessment of human nephrotoxicity and the development of pathogenic states involving epithelial-interstitial interactions, making them an important adjunct to animal studies.

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          Kidney organoids from human iPS cells contain multiple lineages and model human nephrogenesis.

          The human kidney contains up to 2 million epithelial nephrons responsible for blood filtration. Regenerating the kidney requires the induction of the more than 20 distinct cell types required for excretion and the regulation of pH, and electrolyte and fluid balance. We have previously described the simultaneous induction of progenitors for both collecting duct and nephrons via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Paradoxically, although both are of intermediate mesoderm in origin, collecting duct and nephrons have distinct temporospatial origins. Here we identify the developmental mechanism regulating the preferential induction of collecting duct versus kidney mesenchyme progenitors. Using this knowledge, we have generated kidney organoids that contain nephrons associated with a collecting duct network surrounded by renal interstitium and endothelial cells. Within these organoids, individual nephrons segment into distal and proximal tubules, early loops of Henle, and glomeruli containing podocytes elaborating foot processes and undergoing vascularization. When transcription profiles of kidney organoids were compared to human fetal tissues, they showed highest congruence with first trimester human kidney. Furthermore, the proximal tubules endocytose dextran and differentially apoptose in response to cisplatin, a nephrotoxicant. Such kidney organoids represent powerful models of the human organ for future applications, including nephrotoxicity screening, disease modelling and as a source of cells for therapy.
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            The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system: from physiology to the pathobiology of hypertension and kidney disease.

            In recent years, the focus of interest on the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathophysiology of hypertension and organ injury has changed to a major emphasis on the role of the local RAS in specific tissues. In the kidney, all of the RAS components are present and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by independent multiple mechanisms. Proximal tubular angiotensinogen, collecting duct renin, and tubular angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors are positively augmented by intrarenal Ang II. In addition to the classic RAS pathways, prorenin receptors and chymase are also involved in local Ang II formation in the kidney. Moreover, circulating Ang II is actively internalized into proximal tubular cells by AT1 receptor-dependent mechanisms. Consequently, Ang II is compartmentalized in the renal interstitial fluid and the proximal tubular compartments with much higher concentrations than those existing in the circulation. Recent evidence has also revealed that inappropriate activation of the intrarenal RAS is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal injury. Thus, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for independent regulation of the intrarenal RAS. In this review, we will briefly summarize our current understanding of independent regulation of the intrarenal RAS and discuss how inappropriate activation of this system contributes to the development and maintenance of hypertension and renal injury. We will also discuss the impact of antihypertensive agents in preventing the progressive increases in the intrarenal RAS during the development of hypertension and renal injury.
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              From cells to organs: building polarized tissue.

              How do animal cells assemble into tissues and organs? A diverse array of tissue structures and shapes can be formed by organizing groups of cells into different polarized arrangements and by coordinating their polarity in space and time. Conserved design principles underlying this diversity are emerging from studies of model organisms and tissues. We discuss how conserved polarity complexes, signalling networks, transcription factors, membrane-trafficking pathways, mechanisms for forming lumens in tubes and other hollow structures, and transitions between different types of polarity, such as between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, are used in similar and iterative manners to build all tissues.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                08 March 2017
                2017
                : 8
                : 123
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Organovo, Inc. San Diego, CA, USA
                [2] 2Ardea Biosciences Inc. San Diego, CA, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Michelle L. Gumz, University of Florida, USA

                Reviewed by: Arohan Subramanya, University of Pittsburgh, USA; Rosalinde Masereeuw, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Netherlands; Tommy B. Andersson, AstraZeneca R&D Mölndal, Sweden

                *Correspondence: Deborah G. Nguyen dnguyen@ 123456organovo.com

                This article was submitted to Renal and Epithelial Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2017.00123
                5340751
                28154536
                acb157f5-5e97-45f5-b823-6ed41b3b61dc
                Copyright © 2017 King, Higgins, Nino, Smith, Paffenroth, Fairbairn, Docuyanan, Shah, Chen, Presnell and Nguyen.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 25 July 2016
                : 15 February 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 3, Equations: 3, References: 68, Pages: 18, Words: 12368
                Categories
                Physiology
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology
                proximal tubule,3d model,nephrotoxicity,drug safety,renal transporters
                Anatomy & Physiology
                proximal tubule, 3d model, nephrotoxicity, drug safety, renal transporters

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