José Ary Berniger Romariz 1 , 2 , Cássio Nonnemacher 2 , Mylena Abreu 2 , Joice Dickel Segabinazi 2 , Janete Shatkoski Bandeira 2 , Gerardo Beltran 1 , 2 , 3 , Andressa Souza 4 , Iraci LS Torres 5 , Wolnei Caumo 1 , 2 , 6 , 7 , 8
07 August 2019
The primary aim was to assess the psychometric properties (including internal consistency, construct validity, criterion validity, criterion-group validity and responsiveness) of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FOPQ) for adolescents (FOPQ-A) and parents (FOPQ-P) translated to Brazilian Portuguese (BrP). The secondary aim was to analyze the factor structures and their ability to identify subjects with chronic pain conditions and identify the relationship of the BrP FOPQ-A with saliva brain-derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF).
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 286 adolescents aged 11 to 18 (257 healthy adolescents [157 females] and 29 adolescents with chronic pain [16 females]). Parents and adolescents completed the BrP-FOPQ. A team of experts translated the FOPQ according to international guidelines. Convergent validity and factor analysis were performed. Later, a subsample (n=146) was used to correlate the BrP-FOPQ-A with saliva BDNF.
The BrP-FOPQ for adolescents and parents presented strong psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α equal to 0.92 and 0.91, respectively). BrP-FOPQ-A confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor structure while the factorial analyses of BrP-FOPQ-P demonstrated that the best solution was a three-structure factorial. The BrP-FOPQ-P scores in healthy adolescents and those in chronic pain conditions was 34.13 (16.71) vs 43.14 (18.08), respectively. A generalized mixed model demonstrated that the scores in the BrP-FOPQ-A are higher in those with chronic pain conditions compared to healthy subjects (29.20 [12.77] vs 33.80 [10.76], respectively; Wald χ 2= 17.80; df=1, P<0.0001). The model revealed that the BDNF was positively correlated with the score of BrP-FOPQ-A and subjects with chronic pain showed higher levels of BDNF.
The BrP-FOPQ scores for adolescents and parents were found to be psychometrically robust and reliable instruments, with primary evidence of validity. Higher scores on the BrP-FOPQ-A were correlated positively with saliva BDNF and permitted the identification of subjects with chronic pain conditions.