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      Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as green extractants for the isolation of phenolic compounds from biomass

      , , , , , ,
      Journal of Cleaner Production
      Elsevier BV

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          Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and their applications.

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            Deep eutectic solvents: syntheses, properties and applications.

            Within the framework of green chemistry, solvents occupy a strategic place. To be qualified as a green medium, these solvents have to meet different criteria such as availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, recyclability, flammability, and low price among others. Up to now, the number of available green solvents are rather limited. Here we wish to discuss a new family of ionic fluids, so-called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), that are now rapidly emerging in the current literature. A DES is a fluid generally composed of two or three cheap and safe components that are capable of self-association, often through hydrogen bond interactions, to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C. These DESs exhibit similar physico-chemical properties to the traditionally used ionic liquids, while being much cheaper and environmentally friendlier. Owing to these remarkable advantages, DESs are now of growing interest in many fields of research. In this review, we report the major contributions of DESs in catalysis, organic synthesis, dissolution and extraction processes, electrochemistry and material chemistry. All works discussed in this review aim at demonstrating that DESs not only allow the design of eco-efficient processes but also open a straightforward access to new chemicals and materials.
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              Deep eutectic solvents formed between choline chloride and carboxylic acids: versatile alternatives to ionic liquids.

              Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) can be formed between a variety of quaternary ammonium salts and carboxylic acids. The physical properties are significantly affected by the structure of the carboxylic acid but the phase behavior of the mixtures can be simply modeled by taking account of the mole fraction of carboxylic acid in the mixture. The physical properties such as viscosity, conductivity, and surface tension of these DES are similar to ambient temperature ionic liquids and insight into the cause of these properties is gained using hole-theory. It is shown that the conductivity and viscosity of these liquids is controlled by ion mobility and the availability of voids of suitable dimensions, and this is consistent with the fluidity of other ionic liquids and molten salts. The DES are also shown to be good solvents for metal oxides, which could have potential application for metal extraction.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Journal of Cleaner Production
                Journal of Cleaner Production
                Elsevier BV
                09596526
                August 2021
                August 2021
                : 309
                : 127445
                Article
                10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127445
                acc252c4-e56e-4ddf-b3be-54a975eb3426
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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