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      Hyperuricemia as a Mediator of the Proinflammatory Endocrine Imbalance in the Adipose Tissue in a Murine Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          Hyperuricemia is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome and can predict visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Previously, we showed that soluble uric acid directly stimulated the redox-dependent proinflammatory signaling in adipocytes. In this study we demonstrate the role of hyperuricemia in the production of key adipokines.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          We used mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes, human primary adipocytes, and a mouse model of metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia.

          RESULTS

          Uric acid induced in vitro an increase in the production (mRNA and secreted protein) of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), an adipokine playing an essential role in inducing the proinflammatory state in adipocytes in obesity. In addition, uric acid caused a decrease in the production of adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific insulin sensitizer and anti-inflammatory agent. Uric acid–induced increase in MCP-1 production was blocked by scavenging superoxide or by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and by stimulating peroxisome-proliferator–activated receptor-γ with rosiglitazone. Downregulation of the adiponectin production was prevented by rosiglitazone but not by antioxidants. In obese mice with metabolic syndrome, we observed hyperuricemia. Lowering uric acid in these mice by inhibiting xanthine oxidoreductase with allopurinol could improve the proinflammatory endocrine imbalance in the adipose tissue by reducing production of MCP-1 and increasing production of adiponectin. In addition, lowering uric acid in obese mice decreased macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissue and reduced insulin resistance.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Hyperuricemia might be partially responsible for the proinflammatory endocrine imbalance in the adipose tissue, which is an underlying mechanism of the low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

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          Most cited references 32

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          MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity.

          Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that affect the insulin sensitivity of other tissues. We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Mice engineered to express an MCP-1 transgene in adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter exhibited insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and increased hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue induced by a high-fat diet were reduced extensively in MCP-1 homozygous KO mice compared with WT animals. Finally, acute expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MCP-1 ameliorated insulin resistance in db/db mice and in WT mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice.
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            Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance.

            This study identifies monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) as an insulin-responsive gene. It also shows that insulin induces substantial expression and secretion of MCP-1 both in vitro in insulin-resistant (IR) 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in vivo in IR obese mice (ob/ob). Thus, MCP-1 resembles other previously described genes (e.g., PAI-1 and SREBP-1c) that remain sensitive to insulin in IR states. The hyperinsulinemia that frequently accompanies obesity and insulin resistance may therefore contribute to the altered expression of these and other genes in insulin target tissues. In vivo studies also demonstrate that MCP-1 is overexpressed in obese mice compared with their lean controls, and that white adipose tissue is a major source of MCP-1. The elevated MCP-1 may alter adipocyte function because addition of MCP-1 to differentiated adipocytes in vitro decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the expression of several adipogenic genes (LpL, adipsin, GLUT-4, aP2, beta3-adrenergic receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma). These results suggest that elevated MCP-1 may induce adipocyte dedifferentiation and contribute to pathologies associated with hyperinsulinemia and obesity, including type II diabetes.
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              Uric acid-induced C-reactive protein expression: implication on cell proliferation and nitric oxide production of human vascular cells.

              Recent experimental and human studies have shown that hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease mediated by endothelial dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have emerged as one of the most powerful independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. In addition to being a marker of inflammation, recent evidence suggests that CRP may participate directly in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. For investigating whether uric acid (UA)-induced inflammatory reaction and vascular remodeling is related to CRP, the UA-induced expression of CRP in human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined, as well as the pathogenetic role of CRP in vascular remodeling. It is interesting that HVSMC and HUVEC expressed CRP mRNA and protein constitutively, revealing that vascular cells are another source of CRP production. UA (6 to 12 mg/dl) upregulated CRP mRNA expression in HVSMC and HUVEC with a concomitant increase in CRP release into cell culture media. Inhibition of p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 44/42 significantly suppressed UA-induced CRP expression, implicating these pathways in the response to UA. UA stimulated HVSMC proliferation whereas UA inhibited serum-induced proliferation of HUVEC assessed by 3H-thymidine uptake and cell counting, which was attenuated by co-incubation with probenecid, the organic anion transport inhibitor, suggesting that entry of UA into cells is responsible for CRP expression. UA also increased HVSMC migration and inhibited HUVEC migration. In HUVEC, UA reduced nitric oxide (NO) release. Treatment of vascular cells with anti-CRP antibody revealed a reversal of the effect of UA on cell proliferation and migration in HVSMC and NO release in HUVEC, which suggests that CRP expression may be responsible for UA-induced vascular remodeling. This is the first study to show that soluble UA, at physiologic concentrations, has profound effects on human vascular cells. The observation that UA alters the proliferation/migration and NO release of human vascular cells, mediated by the expression of CRP, calls for careful reconsideration of the role of UA in hypertension and vascular disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                diabetes
                diabetes
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                April 2011
                22 March 2011
                : 60
                : 4
                : 1258-1269
                Affiliations
                1Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
                2Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
                3Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yuri Y. Sautin, yuri.sautin@ 123456medicine.ufl.edu .

                W.B. and S.M. contributed equally to this article.

                Article
                0916
                10.2337/db10-0916
                3064099
                21346177
                © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

                Product
                Categories
                Pathophysiology

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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