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      Diagnosis of Late Puberty

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Late puberty, Delayed puberty, Constitutional delay of puberty, Chronic illness, Puberty

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          Abstract

          Late puberty is defined as the lack of pubertal development at two standard deviations above the mean age for the general population of the geographical area. In practical terms, this is a chronological age of 14 years for males (testicular volume <4 ml) and 13 years for girls (lack of thelarche). The goal of the assessment is to determine whether the delay or lack of development is due to a lag in normal pubertal maturation or represents an abnormality that must be investigated. Etiologies of pubertal delay and pubertal failure include: a) Constitutional delay of puberty (healthy patients with a clinical history of delayed growth and development; b) Hypogonadotropic states (congenital abnormalities, tumours, endocrinopathies); c) Hypergonadotropic states (chromosomal alterations, syndromes, genetic disorders, radiotherapy/chemotherapy); d) Secondary to chronic illness (organic abnormalities, oncological diseases, malnutrition, eating disorders and endocrinopathies). Diagnostic evaluation must include: a detailed physical examination, including auxological parameters (height and bone maturation), personal and familial antecedents, measurements of general hematological and biochemical parameters, gonadotropins, prolactin, thyroid hormones, sex steroids, growth hormone and growth factors. When necessary, an MRI must be performed. A karyotype is indicated in girls with delayed puberty and short stature and in boys who have small testes and hypergonadotropism.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Mutations in the homeobox gene HESX1/Hesx1 associated with septo-optic dysplasia in human and mouse.

          During early mouse development the homeobox gene Hesx1 is expressed in prospective forebrain tissue, but later becomes restricted to Rathke's pouch, the primordium of the anterior pituitary gland. Mice lacking Hesx1 exhibit variable anterior CNS defects and pituitary dysplasia. Mutants have a reduced prosencephalon, anopthalmia or micropthalmia, defective olfactory development and bifurcations in Rathke's pouch. Neonates exhibit abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the anterior and hippocampal commissures, and the septum pellucidum. A comparable and equally variable phenotype in humans is septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). We have cloned human HESX1 and screened for mutations in affected individuals. Two siblings with SOD were homozygous for an Arg53Cys missense mutation within the HESX1 homeodomain which destroyed its ability to bind target DNA. These data suggest an important role for Hesx1/HESX1 in forebrain, midline and pituitary development in mouse and human.
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            Mutations in PROP1 cause familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

            Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in man denotes impaired production of growth hormone (GH) and one or more of the other five anterior pituitary hormones. Mutations of the pituitary transcription factor gene POU1F1 (the human homologue of mouse Pit1) are responsible for deficiencies of GH, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in Snell and Jackson dwarf mice and in man, while the production of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is preserved. The Ames dwarf (df) mouse displays a similar phenotype, and appears to be epistatic to Snell and Jackson dwarfism. We have recently positionally cloned the putative Ames dwarf gene Prop1, which encodes a paired-like homeodomain protein that is expressed specifically in embryonic pituitary and is necessary for Pit1 expression. In this report, we have identified four CPHD families with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for inactivating mutations of PROP1. These mutations in the human PROP1 gene result in a gene product with reduced DNA-binding and transcriptional activation ability in comparison to the product of the murine df mutation. In contrast to individuals with POU1F1 mutations, those with PROP1 mutations cannot produce LH and FSH at a sufficient level and do not enter puberty spontaneously. Our results identify a major cause of CPHD in humans and suggest a direct or indirect role for PROP1 in the ontogenesis of pituitary gonadotropes, as well as somatotropes, lactotropes and caudomedial thyrotropes.
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              Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X)--a clonal proliferative disease.

              The lesions of Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X), a proliferative histiocytic disorder of unknown cause, contain histiocytes similar in phenotype to dendritic Langerhans' cells. The disease ranges in severity from a fatal leukemia-like disorder to an isolated lytic lesion of bone. Intermediate forms of the disease are usually characterized by multiorgan involvement, diabetes insipidus, and a chronic course. To determine whether Langerhans' histiocytosis is a polyclonal reactive disease or a clonal disorder, we used X-linked polymorphic DNA probes (HUMARA, PGK, M27 beta[DXS255], and HPRT) to assess clonality in lesional tissues and control leukocytes from 10 female patients with various forms of the disease. Lymphoid clonality was also assessed by analysis of rearrangements at immunoglobulin and T-cell-receptor gene loci. The HUMARA assay detected clonal cells in the lesions of 9 of the 10 patients: 3 patients had acute disseminated disease, 3 had unifocal disease, and 3 had intermediate forms. The percentage of clonal cells closely approximated the percentage of CD1a-positive histiocytes in each lesion. Clonality was also confirmed in two of nine cases with the PGK or M27 beta probe. Extreme constitutional lyonization precluded assessment of clonality in the 10th case. Lymphoid clonality was ruled out in all cases. The detection of clonal histiocytes in all forms of Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis indicates that this disease is probably a clonal neoplastic disorder with highly variable biologic behavior. Thus, genetic mutations that promote clonal expansion of Langerhans' cells or their precursors may now be identified.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7013-8
                978-3-318-00533-2
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                1999
                November 1999
                17 November 2004
                : 51
                : Suppl 3
                : 95-100
                Affiliations
                Division of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Hospital Niño Jesús, University Autónoma of Madrid, Madrid,Spain
                Article
                53168 Horm Res 1999;51(suppl 3):95–100
                10.1159/000053168
                10592450
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Meet-the-Professor Session

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