Objective To evaluate adolescents' self-esteem and explore its influencing factors in order to provide basic evidence for improving self-esteem level and mental health of adolescents.
Methods A total of 5 709 adolescents of different characteristics from both urban and rural areas in six provinces were investigated anonymously with the method of computer-assisted self-interview (CASI). Self-esteem was evaluated by Self-Esteem Scale (SES, scored 10-40 points).
Results The average score of self-esteem was 28.15, 28.40, 28.97 and 27.45 point for junior high students, senior high students, college students and out-of-school adolescents, respectively. The difference of the scores among the four groups was statistically significant ( F = 27.64, 14.41, P <0.01). More than 80% adolescents felt they were people of worth, were able to do things as most other people, took a positive attitude toward themselves and were satisfied with themselves. About 50% of adolescents thought they were no good at all at times. Less than 20% adolescents thought they had enough respect for themselves. About 11.57% to 22.22% of adolescents felt sad about their own gender, about 37.56% to 61.49% of adolescents often or sometimes felt sad about their body image. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that those who had a good overall feeling of family, satisfied with their own gender, and less worried about their body image tended to have a higher self-esteem scores among 4 groups ( P<0.01). Other related influencing factors included parental education level, family economic status, only-child or not, birth place and parental preference for gender of their child.
Conclusion Adolescents' self-esteem was fair, and many factors were associated with it. It is necessary to strengthen the education on gender equality among parents and adolescents and to pay more attention to mental health of the adolescents, who were in rural areas, with poor family atmosphere and economic status.
【摘要】 目的 了解青少年的自我悦纳情况及其影响因素, 为开展提髙青少年自我悦纳水平的健康教育提供基础数 据。 方法 在中国 6 个省中用多阶段抽样法选取初中、髙中、大学生和社会青年 4 类群体共 5 709 名进行问卷调査, 采用自 尊量表 (SES)评估其自我悦纳水平 (得分范围 10~40)。 结果 初中、髙中、大学生和社会青年 4 类群体的自我悦纳平均得 分分别为 28.15, 28.40, 28.97 和 27.45, 不同群体同性别间比较差异有统计学意义 ( F 值分别为 27.64, 14.41, P值均<0.01)。 80%以上的青少年认为“自己是个有价值的人” “能够做到与大部分人表现一样好” “很看好自己”“对自己比较满意”; 约 50% 的青少年认为“自己一点好处也没有”; 不到 20% 的青少年觉得自己自尊心够强。4 类对象中对自身性别感到苦恼的 比例为 11.57% ~ 22.22%, 因自身体型、外貌等身体意象感到苦恼的比例为 37.56% ~ 61.49%。多元线性回归分析发现, 4 类 对象中, 对家庭总体感觉较好、对自己性别满意、较少为身体意象苦恼者自我悦纳水平较髙 ( P值均<0.01); 其他可能的影 响因素还包括父母亲学历、家庭经济状况、是否独生子女、出生地性质以及父母对孩子的性别偏好等。 结论 青少年自我 悦纳水平总体尚可, 并受多种因素影响。要加强对家长和青少年性别平等意识的教育, 尤其关注农村、家庭氛围和经济状 况较差家庭青少年的心理健康。