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      Cell Culture on MEMS Platforms: A Review

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          Abstract

          Microfabricated systems provide an excellent platform for the culture of cells, and are an extremely useful tool for the investigation of cellular responses to various stimuli. Advantages offered over traditional methods include cost-effectiveness, controllability, low volume, high resolution, and sensitivity. Both biocompatible and bio-incompatible materials have been developed for use in these applications. Biocompatible materials such as PMMA or PLGA can be used directly for cell culture. However, for bio-incompatible materials such as silicon or PDMS, additional steps need to be taken to render these materials more suitable for cell adhesion and maintenance. This review describes multiple surface modification strategies to improve the biocompatibility of MEMS materials. Basic concepts of cell-biomaterial interactions, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion are covered. Finally, the applications of these MEMS materials in Tissue Engineering are presented.

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          Most cited references 168

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          The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder.

          A key tenet of bone tissue engineering is the development of scaffold materials that can stimulate stem cell differentiation in the absence of chemical treatment to become osteoblasts without compromising material properties. At present, conventional implant materials fail owing to encapsulation by soft tissue, rather than direct bone bonding. Here, we demonstrate the use of nanoscale disorder to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce bone mineral in vitro, in the absence of osteogenic supplements. This approach has similar efficiency to that of cells cultured with osteogenic media. In addition, the current studies show that topographically treated MSCs have a distinct differentiation profile compared with those treated with osteogenic media, which has implications for cell therapies.
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            Capturing complex 3D tissue physiology in vitro.

            The emergence of tissue engineering raises new possibilities for the study of complex physiological and pathophysiological processes in vitro. Many tools are now available to create 3D tissue models in vitro, but the blueprints for what to make have been slower to arrive. We discuss here some of the 'design principles' for recreating the interwoven set of biochemical and mechanical cues in the cellular microenvironment, and the methods for implementing them. We emphasize applications that involve epithelial tissues for which 3D models could explain mechanisms of disease or aid in drug development.
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              Cells on chips.

              Microsystems create new opportunities for the spatial and temporal control of cell growth and stimuli by combining surfaces that mimic complex biochemistries and geometries of the extracellular matrix with microfluidic channels that regulate transport of fluids and soluble factors. Further integration with bioanalytic microsystems results in multifunctional platforms for basic biological insights into cells and tissues, as well as for cell-based sensors with biochemical, biomedical and environmental functions. Highly integrated microdevices show great promise for basic biomedical and pharmaceutical research, and robust and portable point-of-care devices could be used in clinical settings, in both the developed and the developing world.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1422-0067
                December 2009
                18 December 2009
                : 10
                : 12
                : 5411-5441
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos, #04-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore; E-Mails: mni@ 123456ibn.a-star.edu.sg (M.N.); whtong@ 123456ibn.a-star.edu.sg (W.H.T.); deepakc@ 123456ibn.a-star.edu.sg (D.C.); hyu@ 123456ibn.a-star.edu.sg (H.Y.)
                [2 ] NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS), #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456, Singapore
                [3 ] Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, MD9 #03-03, 2 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Singapore
                [4 ] NUS Tissue-Engineering Programme, DSO Labs, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
                [5 ] Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: ciliescu@ 123456ibn.a-star.edu.sg ; Tel.: +65-68247137; Fax: +65-64789082.
                Article
                ijms-10-05411
                10.3390/ijms10125411
                2802002
                20054478
                © 2009 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                cell culture, biomaterials, mems platforms, biocompatibility

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