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      Fabrication of PVA/PAAm IPN hydrogel with high adhesion and enhanced mechanical properties for body sensors and antibacterial activity

      , , , , , , ,
      European Polymer Journal
      Elsevier BV

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          Hydrogel bioelectronics

          Hydrogels have emerged as a promising bioelectronic interfacing material. This review discusses the fundamentals and recent advances in hydrogel bioelectronics. Bioelectronic interfacing with the human body including electrical stimulation and recording of neural activities is the basis of the rapidly growing field of neural science and engineering, diagnostics, therapy, and wearable and implantable devices. Owing to intrinsic dissimilarities between soft, wet, and living biological tissues and rigid, dry, and synthetic electronic systems, the development of more compatible, effective, and stable interfaces between these two different realms has been one of the most daunting challenges in science and technology. Recently, hydrogels have emerged as a promising material candidate for the next-generation bioelectronic interfaces, due to their similarities to biological tissues and versatility in electrical, mechanical, and biofunctional engineering. In this review, we discuss (i) the fundamental mechanisms of tissue–electrode interactions, (ii) hydrogels’ unique advantages in bioelectrical interfacing with the human body, (iii) the recent progress in hydrogel developments for bioelectronics, and (iv) rational guidelines for the design of future hydrogel bioelectronics. Advances in hydrogel bioelectronics will usher unprecedented opportunities toward ever-close integration of biology and electronics, potentially blurring the boundary between humans and machines.
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            Tough adhesives for diverse wet surfaces

            Adhesion to wet and dynamic surfaces, including biological tissues, is important in many fields, but has proven extremely challenging. Existing adhesives are either cytotoxic, adhere weakly to tissues, or cannot be utilized in wet environments. We report a bio-inspired design for adhesives consisting of two layers: an adhesive surface and a dissipative matrix. The former adheres to the substrate by electrostatic interactions, covalent bonds, and physical interpenetration. The latter amplifies energy dissipation through hysteresis. The two layers synergistically lead to higher adhesion energy on wet surfaces than existing adhesives. Adhesion occurs within minutes, independent of blood exposure, and compatible with in vivo dynamic movements. This family of adhesives may be useful in many areas of application, including tissue adhesives, wound dressings and tissue repair.
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              Nanoparticle silver released into water from commercially available sock fabrics.

              Manufacturers of clothing articles employ nanosilver (n-Ag) as an antimicrobial agent, but the environmental impacts of n-Ag release from commercial products are unknown. The quantity and form of the nanomaterials released from consumer products should be determined to assess the environmental risks of nanotechnology. This paper investigates silver released from commercial clothing (socks) into water, and its fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Six types of socks contained up to a maximum of 1360 microg-Ag/g-sock and leached as much as 650 microg of silver in 500 mL of distilled water. Microscopy conducted on sock material and wash water revealed the presence of silver particles from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. Physical separation and ion selective electrode (ISE) analyses suggest that both colloidal and ionic silver leach from the socks. Variable leaching rates among sock types suggests that the sock manufacturing process may control the release of silver. The adsorption of the leached silver to WWTP biomass was used to develop a model which predicts that a typical wastewater treatment facility could treat a high concentration of influent silver. However, the high silver concentration may limitthe disposal of the biosolids as agricultural fertilizer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Polymer Journal
                European Polymer Journal
                Elsevier BV
                00143057
                March 2021
                March 2021
                : 146
                : 110253
                Article
                10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2020.110253
                acf4b064-f1df-4e41-88c9-29fd87ba891e
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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