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      Veterinary Students’ Knowledge and Perceptions About Antimicrobial Stewardship and Biosecurity—A National Survey

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          Abstract

          A better understanding of veterinary students’ perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship and biosecurity could facilitate more effective education of future veterinarians about these important issues. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed by administering a questionnaire to veterinary students expected to graduate in 2017 or 2018 in all Australian veterinary schools. Four hundred and seventy-six of 1246 students (38%) completed the survey. Many students were unaware of the high importance of some veterinary drugs to human medicine, specifically enrofloxacin and cefovecin (59% and 47% of responses, respectively). Fewer than 10% of students would use appropriate personal protective equipment in scenarios suggestive of Q fever or psittacosis. Students expected to graduate in 2018 were more likely to select culture and susceptibility testing in companion animal cases (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.33–2.69, p < 0.001), and were more likely to appropriately avoid antimicrobials in large animal cases (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.26–2.44, p = 0.001) than those expected to graduate in 2017. However, 2018 graduates were less likely to correctly identify the importance rating of veterinary antimicrobials for human health (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34–0.67, p < 0.001) than 2017 graduates. Students reported having a good knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, and combating resistance, but only 34% thought pharmacology teaching was adequate and only 20% said that teaching in lectures matched clinical teaching. Efforts need to be made to harmonize preclinical and clinical teaching, and greater emphasis is needed on appropriate biosecurity and antimicrobial stewardship.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Medical students' perceptions and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship: how are we educating our future prescribers?

          Better understanding of medical students' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge about antimicrobial prescribing practices could facilitate more effective education of these future prescribers.
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            Suspected transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between domestic pets and humans in veterinary clinics and in the household.

            To describe MRSA infection and colonization in household pets, and transmission of MRSA between animals and humans. MRSA infection and colonization in household pets and human contacts were evaluated during investigations initiated after identification of MRSA infection or colonization of a household pet in order to determine if there had been transmission between animals and humans. All MRSA isolates were screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes by use of polymerase chain reaction, and isolate relatedness was determined by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Investigations of six situations where MRSA was identified in one or more animals in a household or veterinary facility were performed. MRSA was isolated from 8 animals (5 dogs and 3 cats) with clinical infections, 1 cat that was in contact with 2 infected cats and 14/88 (16%) of household contacts or veterinary personnel. Both animal-to-human and human-to-animal transmission were suspected. An indistinguishable MRSA isolate was recovered from at least one human that was in contact with each animal case. All isolates were classified as Canadian epidemic MRSA-2, the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in humans in Canada. No isolates possessed genes encoding for the PVL. Transmission of MRSA between humans and animals, in both directions, was suspected. MRSA appears to be an emerging veterinary and zoonotic pathogen.
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              Knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotics: a questionnaire study among 2500 Chinese students

              Background Recently, many scientists including bacteriologists have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the general population regarding antibiotic use. However, relatively few works have published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we analyze the present status of Chinese medical (MS)- and non-medical (NS) students’ KAP on the use of antibiotics, and examine the influence of Chinese medical curriculum on the appropriate usage of antibiotics among medical students. Methods In this study, 2500 students from 3 universities (including one medical university) in Northeastern China participate in the questionnaire survey on students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward antibiotic usage. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi square test were used to analyze questionnaire-related discrete and categorical variables respectively, in order to assess the impact of the medical curriculum on students’ KAP towards antibiotics. Results 2088 (83.5%) respondents (MS-1236 and NS-852) were considered valid for analysis. The level of knowledge of MS on the proper use of antibiotics was significantly higher than that of NS (p < 0.0001). However, based on their responses on actual practice, MS were found to rely on antibiotics more than NS (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the knowledge and attitude of MS towards antibiotic use improved with the increase in grade with discriminate use of antibiotics concurrently escalating during the same period. Conclusions This study indicates that Chinese medical curriculum significantly improves students’ knowledge on antibiotics and raises their attention on antibiotic resistance that may result from indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The study also shows an excessive use of antibiotics especially among the more senior medical students, signifying a deficiency of antibiotics usage instruction in their curriculum. This might explain why there are frequent abuses of antibiotics in both hospital and community settings from a certain angle.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antibiotics (Basel)
                Antibiotics (Basel)
                antibiotics
                Antibiotics
                MDPI
                2079-6382
                18 April 2018
                June 2018
                : 7
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia; helen.crabb@ 123456unimelb.edu.au (H.C.); jrgilk@ 123456unimelb.edu.au (J.G.); glenfb@ 123456unimelb.edu.au (G.B.)
                [2 ]National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship, Peter Doherty Institute, Grattan St, Carlton, VIC 3050, Australia
                [3 ]School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, SA 5371, Australia; torben.nielsen@ 123456adelaide.edu.au
                [4 ]College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4810, Australia; richard.squires@ 123456jcu.edu.au
                [5 ]School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia; jheller@ 123456csu.edu.au
                [6 ]School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia; c.sharp@ 123456murdoch.edu.au
                [7 ]School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia; r.cobbold@ 123456uq.edu.au
                [8 ]Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; jacqui.norris@ 123456sydney.edu.au
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: laura.hardefeldt@ 123456unimelb.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-3-9035-3562
                Article
                antibiotics-07-00034
                10.3390/antibiotics7020034
                6023091
                29670064
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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