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      Mode of Infection of Metarhizium spp. Fungus and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents

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          Abstract

          Chemical insecticides have been commonly used to control agricultural pests, termites, and biological vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, the harmful impacts of toxic chemical insecticides on the environment, the development of resistance in pests and vectors towards chemical insecticides, and public concern have driven extensive research for alternatives, especially biological control agents such as fungus and bacteria. In this review, the mode of infection of Metarhizium fungus on both terrestrial and aquatic insect larvae and how these interactions have been widely employed will be outlined. The potential uses of Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum biological control agents and molecular approaches to increase their virulence will be discussed.

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          Most cited references 117

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          Mycoinsecticides and Mycoacaricides: A comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types

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            Trajectory and genomic determinants of fungal-pathogen speciation and host adaptation

             X. HU,  G Xiao,  P. Zheng (2014)
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              A multilocus phylogeny of the Metarhizium anisopliae lineage.

              Metarhizium anisopliae, the type species of the anamorph entomopathogenic genus Metarhizium, is currently composed of four varieties, including the type variety, and had been demonstrated to be closely related to M. taii, M. pingshaense and M. guizhouense. In this study we evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the M. anisopliae complex, identify monophyletic lineages and clarify the species taxonomy. To this end we have employed a multigene phylogenetic approach using near-complete sequences from nuclear encoded EF-1alpha, RPB1, RPB2 and beta-tubulin gene regions and evaluated the morphology of these taxa, including ex-type isolates whenever possible. The phylogenetic and in some cases morphological evidence supports the monophyly of nine terminal taxa in the M. anisopliae complex that we recognize as species. We propose to recognize at species rank M. anisopliae, M. guizhouense, M. pingshaense, M. acridum stat. nov., M. lepidiotae stat. nov. and M. majus stat. nov. In addition we describe the new species M. globosum and M. robertsii, resurrect the name M. brunneum and show that M. taii is a later synonym of M. guizhouense.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                J Fungi (Basel)
                J Fungi (Basel)
                jof
                Journal of Fungi
                MDPI
                2309-608X
                07 June 2017
                June 2017
                : 3
                : 2
                Affiliations
                School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Malaysia; kimaw94@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hue.seow.mun@ 123456monash.edu ; Tel.: +603-55146116
                Article
                jof-03-00030
                10.3390/jof3020030
                5715920
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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