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Secular trends in the national prevalence of overweight and obesity during 2007-2009 in 6-year-old Iranian children

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      Abstract

      BACKGROUND:This study aimed to determine the secular trends in the national prevalence of overweight and obesity among 6-year-old Iranian children, and to compare the results in Northern, Central and Southern parts of the country.METHODS:The data were collected as part of a routine and mandatory national screening program on children entering elementary schools in 2007, 2008 and 2009.RESULTS:The study population comprised 2,600,065 children including 862,433 in 2007, 782,244 in 2008 and 955,388 in 2009. Of total children 12.8%, 13.5% and 10.9% were overweight in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively (P > 0.05). The corresponding figures for obesity were 3.4%, 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively (P > 0.05). In all surveys, the prevalence of overweight was higher in Southern region than in the other two regions. P for trend was not significant for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in any of the regions.CONCLUSIONS:To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first of its kind in presenting the nationwide trend of overweight and obesity in young children living in a developing country. It showed a considerably high prevalence of overweight and obesity, but with a constant rate in three years. The higher prevalence of overweight in Southern region than in Central and Northern regions might be related to the lower socioeconomic position of this population. At a very young age, children's lifestyle is more under control of parents. Primordial and primary prevention efforts against the overweight epidemic can be effective and shall be further strengthened.

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      CDC growth charts: United States.

      This report presents the revised growth charts for the United States. It summarizes the history of the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts, reasons for the revision, data sources and statistical procedures used, and major features of the revised charts. Data from five national health examination surveys collected from 1963 to 1994 and five supplementary data sources were combined to establish an analytic growth chart data set. A variety of statistical procedures were used to produce smoothed percentile curves for infants (from birth to 36 months) and older children (from 2 to 20 years), using a two-stage approach. Initial curve smoothing for selected major percentiles was accomplished with various parametric and nonparametric procedures. In the second stage, a normalization procedure was used to generate z-scores that closely match the smoothed percentile curves. The 14 NCHS growth charts were revised and new body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) charts were created for boys and girls (http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts). The growth percentile curves for infants and children are based primarily on national survey data. Use of national data ensures a smooth transition from the charts for infants to those for older children. These data better represent the racial/ethnic diversity and the size and growth patterns of combined breast- and formula-fed infants in the United States. New features include addition of the 3rd and 97th percentiles for all charts and extension of all charts for children and adolescents to age 20 years. Created with improved data and statistical curve smoothing procedures, the United States growth charts represent an enhanced instrument to evaluate the size and growth of infants and children.
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        Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

        The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countries in the near future. In a systematic review carried out through an electronic search of the literature from 1950-2007, the author compared data from surveys on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome among children living in developing countries. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight was found in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, whereas India and Sri Lanka had the lowest prevalence. The few studies conducted in developing countries showed a considerably high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among youth. These findings provide alarming data for health professionals and policy-makers about the extent of these problems in developing countries, many of which are still grappling with malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Time trends in childhood obesity and its metabolic consequences, defined by uniform criteria, should be monitored in developing countries in order to obtain useful insights for primordial and primary prevention of the upcoming chronic disease epidemic in such communities.
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          First Nationwide Study of the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and Optimal Cutoff Points of Waist Circumference in the Middle East

          OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to provide the first national estimate on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components and the first ethnic-specific cutoff point for waist circumference in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This national survey was conducted in 2007 on 3,024 Iranians aged 25–64 years living in urban and rural areas of all 30 provinces in Iran. The metabolic syndrome was defined by different criteria, namely the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria, and the modified definition of the NCEP/ATP III (ATP III/American Heart Association [AHA]/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI]). RESULTS The age-standardized prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was about 34.7% (95% CI 33.1–36.2) based on the ATP III criteria, 37.4% (35.9–39.0%) based on the IDF definition, and 41.6% (40.1–43.2%) based on the ATP III/AHA/NHLBI criteria. By all definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher in women, in urban areas, and in the 55- to 64-year age-group compared with the prevalence in men, in rural areas, and in other age-groups, respectively. The metabolic syndrome was estimated to affect >11 million Iranians. The optimal cutoff point of waist circumference for predicting at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the IDF was 89 cm for men and 91 cm for women. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome with its considerable burden on the middle-aged population mandates the implementation of national policies for its prevention, notably by tackling obesity. The waist circumference cutoff points obtained can be used in the region.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1- ] Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran AND Bureau of Family Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
            [2- ] Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran AND Child Heall Promotion Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
            [3- ] Physician, Bureau of Health and Fitness, Ministry of Education, Tehran, Iran
            [4- ] Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran AND Child Health Promotion Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
            [5- ] Department of Environment Protection, Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
            [6- ] Youth and School Health Office, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
            Author notes
            Corresponding Author: Rova Kelishadi E-mail: kehshadi@ 123456med mui ac ir
            Journal
            J Res Med Sci
            JRMS
            Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
            Medknow Publications Pvt Ltd (India )
            1735-1995
            1735-7136
            August 2011
            : 16
            : 8
            : 979-984
            3263092
            22279471
            JRMS-16-979
            Copyright: © Journal of Research in Medical Sciences

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Original Article

            Medicine

            national study, iran, children, overweight, trend, prevalence

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