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      Limited Effect of Later-Generation Fluoroquinolones in the Treatment of Ofloxacin-Resistant and Moxifloxacin-Susceptible Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

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          ABSTRACT

          Recent data conflict on the clinical efficacy of later-generation fluoroquinolones, such as moxifloxacin or levofloxacin, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) that is resistant to ofloxacin but susceptible to moxifloxacin. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether later-generation fluoroquinolones can improve treatment outcomes in patients with ofloxacin-resistant, moxifloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 208 patients with moxifloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB who were treated between 2006 and 2011. Later-generation fluoroquinolones were used for all patients. Overall, 171 patients (82%) had ofloxacin-susceptible, moxifloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB (ofloxacin-susceptible group), and 37 (18%) had ofloxacin-resistant, moxifloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB (ofloxacin-resistant group). Compared to the ofloxacin-susceptible group, the ofloxacin-resistant group was more likely to have a history of MDR-TB treatment ( P < 0.001) and cavitary lesions on chest radiography ( P < 0.001). In addition, the ofloxacin-resistant group was more likely than the ofloxacin-susceptible group to have resistance to the drugs pyrazinamide ( P = 0.003), streptomycin ( P = 0.015), prothionamide ( P < 0.001), and para-aminosalicylic acid ( P < 0.001). Favorable outcomes were more frequently achieved for the ofloxacin-susceptible group than for the ofloxacin-resistant group (91% [156/171] versus 57% [21/37], respectively [ P < 0.001]). In multivariable regression logistic analysis, the ofloxacin-susceptible group was about 5.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.55 to 18.53) times more likely than the ofloxacin-resistant group ( P < 0.001) to have favorable outcomes. Despite in vitro moxifloxacin susceptibility, the frequency of favorable treatment outcomes for ofloxacin-resistant MDR-TB was significantly lower than that for ofloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB, even when later-generation fluoroquinolones were used, indicating that more-aggressive therapies may be needed for ofloxacin-resistant MDR-TB.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on multidrug-resistant TB outcomes.

          A meta-analysis for response to treatment was undertaken using individual data of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) (resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin) patients from 26 centres. The analysis assessed the impact of additional resistance to fluoroquinolones and/or second-line injectable drugs on treatment outcome. Compared with treatment failure, relapse and death, treatment success was higher in MDR-TB patients infected with strains without additional resistance (n=4763; 64%, 95% CI 57-72%) or with resistance to second-line injectable drugs only (n=1130; 56%, 95% CI 45-66%), than in those having resistance to fluoroquinolones alone (n=426; 48%, 95% CI 36-60%) or to fluoroquinolones plus second-line injectable drugs (extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB) (n=405; 40%, 95% CI 27-53%). In XDR-TB patients, treatment success was highest if at least six drugs were used in the intensive phase (adjusted OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-16.6; reference fewer than three drugs) and four in the continuation phase (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.4-26.3). The odds of success in XDR-TB patients was maximised when the intensive phase reached 6.6-9.0 months duration and the total duration of treatment 20.1-25.0 months. In XDR-TB patients, regimens containing more drugs than those recommended in MDR-TB but given for a similar duration were associated with the highest odds of success. All data were from observational studies and methodologies varied between centres, therefore, the bias may be substantial. Better quality evidence is needed to optimise regimens.
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            Treatment outcomes among patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

            . The treatment of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) presents a major challenge. Second-line antimycobacterial drugs are less effective, more toxic, and more costly than first-line agents, and XDR TB strains are, by definition, resistant to the most potent second-line options: the injectable agents and fluoroquinolones. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess XDR TB treatment outcomes and to identify therapeutic approaches associated with favorable responses. We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify studies conducted through May 2009 that report XDR TB treatment outcomes. The search yielded 13 observational studies covering 560 patients, of whom 43.7% (95% confidence interval, 32.8%-54.5%) experienced favorable outcomes, defined as either cure or treatment completion, and 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.2%-27.3%) died. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression showed that studies in which a higher proportion of patients received a later-generation fluoroquinolone reported a higher proportion of favorable treatment outcomes (P=.012). This meta-analysis provides the first empirical evidence that the use of later-generation fluoroquinolones for the treatment of XDR TB significantly improves treatment outcomes, even though drug-susceptibility testing demonstrates resistance to a representative fluoroquinolone. These results suggest that the addition of later-generation fluoroquinolones to XDR TB regimens may improve treatment outcomes and should be systematically evaluated in well-designed clinical studies.
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              Treatment outcomes of patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis according to drug susceptibility testing to first- and second-line drugs: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

              Individualized treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis depends upon reliable and valid drug susceptibility testing (DST) for pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and second-line tuberculosis drugs. However, the reliability of these tests is uncertain, due to unresolved methodological issues. We estimated the association of DST results for pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and second-line drugs with treatment outcomes in patients with MDR tuberculosis and XDR tuberculosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
                Antimicrob Agents Chemother
                American Society for Microbiology
                0066-4804
                1098-6596
                February 2018
                January 25 2018
                December 04 2017
                : 62
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]Statistics and Data Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
                [3 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
                [4 ]Seoul Clinical Laboratories, Yongin, South Korea
                Article
                10.1128/AAC.01784-17
                5786783
                29203478
                © 2017
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