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      Retracted Science and the Retraction Index

        ,

      (Editor)

      American Society for Microbiology

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          Abstract

          Infection and Immunity, 79(10), 3855-3859

          Abstract

          Articles may be retracted when their findings are no longer considered trustworthy due to scientific misconduct or error, they plagiarize previously published work, or they are found to violate ethical guidelines. Using a novel measure that we call the “retraction index,” we found that the frequency of retraction varies among journals and shows a strong correlation with the journal impact factor. Although retractions are relatively rare, the retraction process is essential for correcting the literature and maintaining trust in the scientific process.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Why the impact factor of journals should not be used for evaluating research

           P O Seglen (1997)
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            Retractions in the scientific literature: is the incidence of research fraud increasing?

             R Steen (2011)
            Scientific papers are retracted for many reasons including fraud (data fabrication or falsification) or error (plagiarism, scientific mistake, ethical problems). Growing attention to fraud in the lay press suggests that the incidence of fraud is increasing. The reasons for retracting 742 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Reasons for retraction were initially dichotomised as fraud or error and then analysed to determine specific reasons for retraction. Error was more common than fraud (73.5% of papers were retracted for error (or an undisclosed reason) vs 26.6% retracted for fraud). Eight reasons for retraction were identified; the most common reason was scientific mistake in 234 papers (31.5%), but 134 papers (18.1%) were retracted for ambiguous reasons. Fabrication (including data plagiarism) was more common than text plagiarism. Total papers retracted per year have increased sharply over the decade (r=0.96; p<0.001), as have retractions specifically for fraud (r=0.89; p<0.001). Journals now reach farther back in time to retract, both for fraud (r=0.87; p<0.001) and for scientific mistakes (r=0.95; p<0.001). Journals often fail to alert the naïve reader; 31.8% of retracted papers were not noted as retracted in any way. Levels of misconduct appear to be higher than in the past. This may reflect either a real increase in the incidence of fraud or a greater effort on the part of journals to police the literature. However, research bias is rarely cited as a reason for retraction.
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              Ambipolar Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors and Inverters

              Organic field-effect transistors based on pentacene single crystals, prepared with an amorphous aluminum oxide gate insulator, are capable of ambipolar operation and can be used for the preparation of complementary inverter circuits. The field-effect mobilities of carriers in these transistors increase from 2.7 and 1.7 square centimeters per volt per second at room temperature up to 1200 and 320 square centimeters per volt per second at low temperatures for hole and electron transport, respectively, following a power-law dependence. The possible simplification of the fabrication process of complementary logic circuits with these transistors, together with the high carrier mobilities, may be seen as another step toward applications of plastic electronics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Society for Microbiology
                2011
                October 2011
                21 September 2018
                Article
                10.1128/IAI.05661-11
                3187237
                21825063

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