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      Risk factors associated with ineligibility of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy

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          Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is a standard treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. However, RNU can result in decreased renal function and cannot be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a risk group stratification analysis to determine the preoperative factors that are predictive of diminished renal function after RNU.

          Materials and methods

          We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of all patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2008. We analyzed the association between perioperative glomerular filtration rate and preoperative parameters including cancer characteristics, serum creatinine level, and kidney size measured on computed tomographic images.


          A total of 242 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average decrease in renal function 1 month after RNU was 19.7%. Using 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 as the eligibility cutoff for cisplatin-based chemotherapy, 42.1% of the population was eligible prior to nephroureterectomy, whereas following surgery only 15.2% remained eligible. Using a cutoff of 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2, 59.9% of the cohort was eligible for fractionated cisplatin dosing preoperatively, whereas only 32.6% remained above the cutoff postoperatively. The most significant predictors of poor postoperative renal function were body mass index >25 kg/m 2, age >65 years, contralateral kidney length less than 10 cm, and absence of ipsilateral hydronephrosis.


          Our results suggest that older age, higher body mass index, smaller contralateral renal length, and absence of ipsilateral hydronephrosis are predictive of decreased renal function after RNU.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Chronic kidney disease after nephrectomy in patients with renal cortical tumours: a retrospective cohort study.

          Chronic kidney disease is a graded and independent risk factor for substantial comorbidity and death. We aimed to examine new onset of chronic kidney disease in patients with small, renal cortical tumours undergoing radical or partial nephrectomy. We did a retrospective cohort study of 662 patients with a normal concentration of serum creatinine and two healthy kidneys undergoing elective partial or radical nephrectomy for a solitary, renal cortical tumour (
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            Outcomes of radical nephroureterectomy: a series from the Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Collaboration.

            The literature on upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has been limited to small, single center studies. A large series of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC were studied, and variables associated with poor prognosis were identified. Data on 1363 patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy at 12 academic centers were collected. All pathologic slides were re-reviewed by genitourinary pathologists according to strict criteria. Pathologic review revealed renal pelvis location (64%), necrosis (21.6%), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (24.8%), concomitant carcinoma in situ (28.7%), and high-grade disease (63.7%). A total of 590 patients (43.3%) underwent concurrent, lymphadenectomy and 135 (9.9%) were lymph node (LN) -positive. Over a mean follow-up of 51 months, 379 (28%) patients experienced disease recurrence outside of the bladder and 313 (23%) died of UTUC. The 5-year recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival probabilities (+/-SD) were 69%+/-1% and 73%+/-1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, high tumor grade (hazards ratio [HR]: 2.0, P<.001), advancing pathologic T stage (P-for-trend<.001), LN metastases (HR: 1.8, P<.001), infiltrative growth pattern (HR: 1.5, P<.001), and LVI (HR: 1.2, P=.041) were associated with disease recurrence. Similarly, patient age (HR: 1.1, P=.001), high tumor grade (HR: 1.7, P=.001), increasing pathologic T stage (P-for-trend<.001), LN metastases (HR: 1.7, P<.001), sessile architecture (HR: 1.5, P=.002), and LVI (HR: 1.4, P=.02) were independently associated with cancer-specific survival. Radical nephroureterectomy provided durable local control and cancer-specific survival in patients with localized UTUC. Pathologic tumor grade, T stage, LN status, tumor architecture, and LVI were important prognostic variables associated with oncologic outcomes, which could potentially be used to select patients for adjuvant systemic therapy. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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              Prognostic factors, recurrence, and survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a 30-year experience in 252 patients.

              To review a large single-center experience of patients treated for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with extended follow-up in order to identify patterns of recurrence, assess patient outcomes, and determine the impact of traditional prognostic factors. We reviewed 252 patients treated surgically for upper tract TCC with a median follow-up of 64 months. Most patients (77%) underwent nephroureterectomy, whereas 17% were treated with a parenchymal sparing approach. Traditional prognostic factors including age, sex, tumor stage, grade, location, and type of surgical treatment were analyzed with respect to disease recurrence and survival. Disease relapse occurred in 67 patients (27%) at a median time of 12.0 months. Recurrences were local in the retroperitoneum (9%), the bladder (51%), remaining upper tract (18%), or distant in the lung, bone, or liver (22%). The 6 patients with local relapse were among the 73 patients with pT3 or pT4 tumors, and all died of TCC at a median time from diagnosis of 37 months. Significant prognostic factors for recurrence by univariate analysis were tumor grade (P = 0.0014) and stage (P = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, only tumor stage (P = 0.017) and treatment modality (P = 0.020) were predictors of recurrence. Actuarial 5-year disease-specific survival rates by primary tumor stage were 100% for Ta/cis, 91.7% for T1, 72.6% for T2, and 40.5% for T3. Patients with primary Stage T4 tumors had a median survival of 6 months. Although tumor stage and grade correlated with disease-specific survival on univariate analysis, only patient age (P = 0.042) and stage (P = 0.0001) were significant on multivariate analysis with the type of surgical procedure performed approaching significance (P = 0.0504). Primary tumor stage and surgical procedure performed (radical versus parenchymal sparing) are important predictors of disease recurrence. Patient age and tumor stage were the only predictors of disease-specific survival on multivariate analysis with the type of surgical procedure approaching significance. Radical nephroureterectomy achieves excellent local control even in the setting of locally advanced (pT3 or T4) disease. The major clinical feature in this setting is distant failure, and the development of effective systemic therapy is needed to improve the outcome in these patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                21 October 2014
                : 8
                : 1985-1991
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China
                [4 ]Bioinformation Center, Chang Gung Memory Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ke-Hung Tsui, Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou 5 Fu-Shing Street, Kweishan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan, Republic of China, Tel +011 886 3 328 1200 2137, Fax +011 886 2 2735 8775, Email khtsui@ 123456yahoo.com

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2014 Shao et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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