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      Regional and national burden of prostate cancer: incidence, mortality, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life years, in Mexico and Latin America from 1990 to 2019


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          Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer and the fifth cause of cancer-related death. This manuscript aims to determine the incidence, mortality, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) trends of PC in the last 30 years in Latin America and Mexico.


          We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a publicly available data set. Data regarding the burden of prostate cancer in 20 Latin-American countries, and the 32 states of Mexico, were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Collected information included incidence and mortality rates (per 100,000), as well as the DALYs as absolute numbers and rates (per 100,000) and the annual rates of change in rates from 1990 to 2019.


          In Latin America in males aged 55 years or older, the mean incidence rate was 344 cases per 100,000. The number of deaths attributable to prostate cancer observed was 67,110 and the mean mortality rate was 210 per 100,000. The overall burden of disease was 1,120,709 DALYs and the contribution of years of life lost (YLL) was 91.7% ( \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$n$$\end{document}  = 1,027,946). Mexico presented an incidence rate (279.6) and mortality (99.1) rate (per /100 thousand). In Mexico, 13 states had a DALYs’ rate above the national mean (883 per 100,000) and the highest burden (1360 DALYs/100,000) were documented in the state of Guerrero (Southwestern Mexico).


          Only two Latin-American countries (Brazil and Colombia) and eight states of Mexico showed a decreased trend about the rate of change of DALYs in the last 30 years.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11255-023-03653-7.

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          Most cited references15

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

            This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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              Projecting cancer incidence and deaths to 2030: the unexpected burden of thyroid, liver, and pancreas cancers in the United States.

              Cancer incidence and deaths in the United States were projected for the most common cancer types for the years 2020 and 2030 based on changing demographics and the average annual percentage changes in incidence and death rates. Breast, prostate, and lung cancers will remain the top cancer diagnoses throughout this time, but thyroid cancer will replace colorectal cancer as the fourth leading cancer diagnosis by 2030, and melanoma and uterine cancer will become the fifth and sixth most common cancers, respectively. Lung cancer is projected to remain the top cancer killer throughout this time period. However, pancreas and liver cancers are projected to surpass breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers to become the second and third leading causes of cancer-related death by 2030, respectively. Advances in screening, prevention, and treatment can change cancer incidence and/or death rates, but it will require a concerted effort by the research and healthcare communities now to effect a substantial change for the future. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

                Author and article information

                Int Urol Nephrol
                Int Urol Nephrol
                International Urology and Nephrology
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                3 June 2023
                : 1-6
                [1 ]GRID grid.419157.f, ISNI 0000 0001 1091 9430, Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, , Mexican Social Security Institute, ; Av. Lapislazuli No. 250, El Haya, 28984 Villa de Álvarez, Colima Mexico
                [2 ]GRID grid.419157.f, ISNI 0000 0001 1091 9430, Headquarters of Medical Services, , Mexican Social Security Institute, ; Doroteo López 442, Col. Magisterial, Colima, Mexico
                [3 ]GRID grid.419157.f, ISNI 0000 0001 1091 9430, Clinical Laboratory, , Mexican Social Security Institute. HGZ1, ; Av. Lapislazuli No. 250, El Haya, 28984 Villa de Álvarez, Colima Mexico
                [4 ]Department of Research, Cancerology State Institute, Colima State Health Services, Liceo de Varones 401, La Esperanza, 28085 Colima, Colima Mexico
                [5 ]Foundation for Ethics Education and Cancer Research of the IEC of Colima AC, Av. Liceo de Varones 401 Colonia la Esperanza, 28085 Colima, Mexico
                [6 ]GRID grid.412887.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2375 8971, Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, , University of Colima, ; Av. Universidad 333, colonia la Esperanza, 28040 Colima, Mexico
                Author information
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. 2023. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 24 March 2023
                : 27 May 2023
                Urology - Original Paper

                prostate cancer,incidence,mortality,mexico,disability adjusted life years
                prostate cancer, incidence, mortality, mexico, disability adjusted life years


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