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      Radiotherapy plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide for Glioblastoma

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          Abstract

          Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is usually rapidly fatal. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is surgical resection to the extent feasible, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In this trial we compared radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus temozolomide, given concomitantly with and after radiotherapy, in terms of efficacy and safety. Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone (fractionated focal irradiation in daily fractions of 2 Gy given 5 days per week for 6 weeks, for a total of 60 Gy) or radiotherapy plus continuous daily temozolomide (75 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day, 7 days per week from the first to the last day of radiotherapy), followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (150 to 200 mg per square meter for 5 days during each 28-day cycle). The primary end point was overall survival. A total of 573 patients from 85 centers underwent randomization. The median age was 56 years, and 84 percent of patients had undergone debulking surgery. At a median follow-up of 28 months, the median survival was 14.6 months with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months with radiotherapy alone. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the radiotherapy-plus-temozolomide group was 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.75; P<0.001 by the log-rank test). The two-year survival rate was 26.5 percent with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 10.4 percent with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant treatment with radiotherapy plus temozolomide resulted in grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxic effects in 7 percent of patients. The addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma resulted in a clinically meaningful and statistically significant survival benefit with minimal additional toxicity. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

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          Brain tumors.

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            Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors in three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group malignant glioma trials.

            Despite notable technical advances in therapy for malignant gliomas during the past decade, improved patient survival has not been clearly documented, suggesting that pretreatment prognostic factors influence outcome more than minor modifications in therapy. Age, performance status, and tumor histopathology have been identified as the pretreatment variables most predictive of survival outcome. However, an analysis of the association of survival with both pretreatment characteristics and treatment-related variables is necessary to assure reliable evaluation of new approaches for treatment of malignant glioma. This study of malignant glioma patients used a non-parametric statistical technique to examine the associations of both pretreatment patient and tumor characteristics and treatment-related variables with survival duration. This technique was used to identify subgroups with survival rates sufficiently different to create improvements in the design and stratification of clinical trials. We used a recursive partitioning technique to analyze survival in 1578 patients entered in three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group malignant glioma trials from 1974 to 1989 that used several radiation therapy (RT) regimens with and without chemotherapy or a radiation sensitizer. This approach creates a regression tree according to prognostic variables that classifies patients into homogeneous subsets by survival. Twenty-six pretreatment characteristics and six treatment-related variables were analyzed. The years). Patients younger than 50 years old were categorized by histology (astrocytomas with anaplastic or atypical foci [AAF] versus glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]) and subsequently by normal or abnormal mental status for AAF patients and by performance status for those with GBM. For patients aged 50 years or older, performance status was the most important variable, with normal or abnormal mental status creating the only significant split in the poorer performance status group. Treatment-related variables produced a subgroup showing significant differences only for better performance status GBM patients over age 50 (by extent of surgery and RT dose). Median survival times were 4.7-58.6 months for the 12 subgroups resulting from this analysis, which ranged in size from 32 to 256 patients. This approach permits examination of the interaction between prognostic variables not possible with other forms of multivariate analysis. The recursive partitioning technique can be employed to refine the stratification and design of malignant glioma trials.
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              A phase II study of temozolomide vs. procarbazine in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse

              A randomized, multicentre, open-label, phase II study compared temozolomide (TMZ), an oral second-generation alkylating agent, and procarbazine (PCB) in 225 patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Primary objectives were to determine progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months and safety for TMZ and PCB in adult patients who failed conventional treatment. Secondary objectives were to assess overall survival and health-related quality of life (HRQL). TMZ was given orally at 200 mg/m2/day or 150 mg/m2/day (prior chemotherapy) for 5 days, repeated every 28 days. PCB was given orally at 150 mg/m2/day or 125 mg/m2/day (prior chemotherapy) for 28 days, repeated every 56 days. HRQL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 [+3]) and the Brain Cancer Module 20 (BCM20). The 6-month PFS rate for patients who received TMZ was 21%, which met the protocol objective. The 6-month PFS rate for those who received PCB was 8% (P = 0.008, for the comparison). Overall PFS significantly improved with TMZ, with a median PFS of 12.4 weeks in the TMZ group and 8.32 weeks in the PCB group (P = 0.0063). The 6-month overall survival rate for TMZ patients was 60% vs. 44% for PCB patients (P = 0.019). Freedom from disease progression was associated with maintenance of HRQL, regardless of treatment received. TMZ had an acceptable safety profile; most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                March 10 2005
                March 10 2005
                : 352
                : 10
                : 987-996
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa043330
                15758009
                © 2005
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