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      Symptome des trockenen Auges bei Diabetes mellitus

      Kompass Ophthalmologie
      S. Karger AG
      Eyelid laxity, Floppy eyelids, Anterior segment, Diabetes mellitus, Dry eye disease

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          Dry eye disease is an umbrella term that includes a variety of symptoms and signs. A link between diabetes mellitus and dry eye disease exists, but the associated phenotype needs further examination. Thus, our aim was to determine how diabetes mellitus relates to the dry eye disease phenotype. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Miami Veteran Affairs Medical Center ophthalmology clinic between October 2013 and September 2019. Participants included a volunteer sample of 366 South Florida veterans with one or more symptoms or signs of dry eye disease [Dry Eye Questionnaire-5 ≥ 6 OR tear break-up time ≤ 5 OR Schirmer’s test score ≤ 5 OR corneal fluorescein staining ≥ 2]. Participants were divided into three groups: (1) individuals without diabetes mellitus (controls); (2) individuals with diabetes mellitus but without end-organ complications; and (3) individuals with diabetes mellitus and end-organ complications. Dry eye metrics were compared across groups. The main outcome measures included ocular symptom questionnaires [e.g., 5-item Dry Eye Questionnaire, Ocular Surface Disease Index, and ocular pain assessment] and clinical parameters obtained from an ocular surface evaluation. A total of 366 individuals were included (mean age 59 ± 6 years; 89% males; 39% White; 11% diabetes mellitus and end-organ complications; 15% diabetes mellitus but without end-organ complications). Individuals with diabetes mellitus and end-organ complications had lower symptom scores on the dry eye disease and pain-specific questionnaires compared to individuals with diabetes mellitus but without end-organ complications and controls (Ocular Surface Disease Index: 42.1 ± 24.5 vs. 38.9 ± 25.1 vs. 23.6 ± 16.2; p < 0.001; numerical rating scale of ocular pain intensity: 4.9 ± 3.2 vs. 4.3 ± 2.7 vs. 3.5 ± 2.7; p = 0.02). Eyelid laxity was also more severe in the group with diabetes mellitus and end-organ complications (0.69 ± 0.64 vs. 0.73 ± 0.72 vs. 1.08 ± 0.77; p = 0.004) compared to the two other groups. The diabetic dry eye disease phenotype is driven by signs more so than by symptoms, with anatomic eyelid abnormalities being more frequent in individuals with diabetes mellitus and end-organ complications. Given this, ocular surface abnormalities in individuals with DM may be missed if screened by symptoms alone. As such, individuals with DM should undergo a slit lamp examination for signs of ocular surface disease, including anatomic abnormalities.

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          TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Report

          The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition. In the light of new data, neurosensory abnormalities were also included in the definition for the first time. In the classification of DED, recent evidence supports a scheme based on the pathophysiology where aqueous deficient and evaporative dry eye exist as a continuum, such that elements of each are considered in diagnosis and management. Central to the scheme is a positive diagnosis of DED with signs and symptoms, and this is directed towards management to restore homeostasis. The scheme also allows consideration of various related manifestations, such as non-obvious disease involving ocular surface signs without related symptoms, including neurotrophic conditions where dysfunctional sensation exists, and cases where symptoms exist without demonstrable ocular surface signs, including neuropathic pain. This approach is not intended to override clinical assessment and judgment but should prove helpful in guiding clinical management and research.

            Author and article information

            Kompass Ophthalmologie
            Kompass Ophthalmol
            S. Karger AG
            30 January 2024
            : 10
            : 1
            : 11-13
            Augenklinik, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
            535686 Kompass Ophthalmol 2024;10:11–13
            © 2024 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

            Page count
            Figures: 2, Pages: 3

            Eyelid laxity,Floppy eyelids,Anterior segment,Diabetes mellitus,Dry eye disease
            Eyelid laxity, Floppy eyelids, Anterior segment, Diabetes mellitus, Dry eye disease


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