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      Long-term effect of acidic pH on the surface microhardness of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine, and total fill root repair material putty


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          The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness values of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and total fill root repair material (TF-RRM) Putty at varying pH and times.

          Materials and Methods:

          In this laboratory experiment, materials were mixed and placed in cylinder blocks with internal dimensions of 6 mm × 4 mm. Ten samples of each material were soaked in buffered solutions of butyric acid with 4.4, 5.4, 6.4, and 7.4 pH values and stored at 37°C in 100% humidity. The samples were submitted to the microhardness test at the end of 1 week and then 1 month. Multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference tests were carried out to compare the mean values at a significance level of P < 0.05.


          Low pH caused a significant decrease in the microhardness values of all samples. Surface microhardness increased with time ( P < 0.0001). The microhardness values of Biodentine were significantly greater than those of ProRoot MTA and TF-RRM putty ( P < 0.0001). The lowest microhardness values were recorded for TF-RRM putty groups regardless of the pH of the environment and the evaluation time.


          An acidic environment impaired the surface microhardness of all root repair materials tested. Overall, the mean surface microhardness of TF-RRM Putty was lower than those of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. Biodentine showed the greatest microhardness values at all pH values, regardless of the evaluation time.

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          Most cited references24

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          Physicochemical basis of the biologic properties of mineral trioxide aggregate.

          This study characterized the interactions of mineral trioxide aggregate with a synthetic tissue fluid composed of a neutral phosphate buffer saline solution and root canal dentin in extracted human teeth using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction. Mineral trioxide aggregate exposed to synthetic tissue fluid at 37 degrees C released its metallic constituents and produced precipitates with a composition and structure similar to that of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2-HA]. Endodontically prepared teeth filled with mineral trioxide aggregate and stored in synthetic tissue fluid at 37 degrees C for 2 months produced at the dentin wall an adherent interfacial layer that resembled hydroxyapatite in composition. The authors conclude that Ca, the dominant ion released from mineral trioxide aggregate, reacts with phosphates in synthetic tissue fluid, yielding hydroxyapatite. The dentin-mineral trioxide aggregate interfacial layer results from a similar reaction. The sealing ability, biocompatibility, and dentinogenic activity of mineral trioxide aggregate is attributed to these physicochemical reactions.
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            Investigation of the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement-based root-end filling materials.

            Tricalcium silicate-based cements have been displayed as suitable root-end filling materials. The physical properties of prototype radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material was used as a control. The physical properties of a prototype zirconium oxide replaced tricalcium silicate cement and two proprietary cements composed of tricalcium silicate namely Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material (IRM) was used as a control. Radiopacity assessment was undertaken and expressed in thickness of aluminum. In addition the anti-washout resistance was investigated using a novel basket-drop method and the fluid uptake, sorption and solubility were investigated using a gravimetric method. The setting time was assessed using an indentation technique and compressive strength and micro-hardness of the test materials were investigated. All the testing was performed with the test materials immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution. All the materials tested had a radiopacity value higher than 3mm thickness of aluminum. IRM exhibited the highest radiopacity. Biodentine demonstrated a high washout, low fluid uptake and sorption values, low setting time and superior mechanical properties. The fluid uptake and setting time was the highest for Bioaggregate. The addition of admixtures to tricalcium silicate-based cements affects the physical properties of the materials. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Induction of specific cell responses to a Ca(3)SiO(5)-based posterior restorative material.

              A Ca(3)SiO(5)-based cement has been developed to circumvent the shortcomings of traditional filling materials. The purpose of this work was to evaluate its genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and effects on the target cells' specific functions. Ames' test was applied on four Salmonella typhimurium strains. The micronuclei test was studied on human lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity (MTT test), the Comet assay and the effects on the specific functions by immunohistochemistry were performed on human pulp fibroblasts. Ames' test did not show any evidence of mutagenicity. The incidence of lymphocytes with micronuclei and the percentage of tail DNA in the Comet assay were similar to the negative control. The percentage of cell mortality with the new cement as performed with the MTT test was similar to that of biocompatible materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and was less than that obtained with Dycal. The new material does not affect the target cells' specific functions such as mineralization, as well as expression of collagen I, dentin sialoprotein and Nestin. The new cement is biocompatible and does not affect the specific functions of target cells. It can be used safely in the clinic as a single bulk restorative material without any conditioning treatment. It can be used as a potential alternative to traditionally used posterior restorative materials.

                Author and article information

                Dent Res J (Isfahan)
                Dent Res J (Isfahan)
                Dental Research Journal
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                23 February 2021
                : 18
                [1]Department of Endodontics, Marmara University, Basibuyuk Saglik Yerleskesi, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Fatima Betul Basturk, Department of Endodontics, Marmara University, Basibuyuk Saglik Yerleskesi, 9/3 34854 Maltepe, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: fatimabasturk@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © 2021 Dental Research Journal

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article

                hardness tests,inflammation,mineral trioxide aggregate,root canal filling materials,tricalcium silicate


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