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      Ginsenoside Rg3 targets cancer stem cells and tumor angiogenesis to inhibit colorectal cancer progression in vivo

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          Abstract

          Anti-angiogenic therapy has been successfully applied to treat colorectal cancer (CRC). Ginsenoside Rg3, derived from the Chinese herb ginseng, has anti-vascularization effects and can inhibit tumor growth and metastasis, and can sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether Rg3 could be appropriate for CRC treatment. Growth of CRC cells was assessed by an MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay in vitro and using orthotopic xenograft models in vivo. mRNA expression was evaluated using real-time PCR. Protein levels were tested by western blotting, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Migration was determined using a wound-healing assay. Stemness was further confirmed using a plate clone formation assay. We found that Rg3 repressed the growth and stemness of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Rg3 also impaired the migration of CRC cells in vitro. Rg3 downregulated the expressions of angiogenesis-related genes, and repressed the vascularization of CRC xenografts. In addition, Rg3 strengthened the cytotoxicity of 5-Fluorouracil and oxaliplatin against orthotopic xenografts in vivo. Moreover, Rg3 downregulated the expressions of B7-H1 and B7-H3, high expressions of which were associated with reduced overall survival (OS) of CRC patients. Hence, Rg3 not only repressed the growth and stemness of CRC cells, but could also remodel the tumor microenvironment through repressing angiogenesis and promoting antitumor immunity. Therefore, Rg3 could be a novel therapeutic for the CRC treatment.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Bevacizumab (Avastin), a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody for cancer therapy.

          Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen in vitro and an angiogenic inducer in vivo. The tyrosine kinases Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and Flk-1/KDR (VEGFR-2) are high affinity VEGF receptors. VEGF plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis and is important also for reproductive and bone angiogenesis. Substantial evidence also implicates VEGF as a mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies and other VEGF inhibitors block the growth of several tumor cell lines in nude mice. Clinical trials with VEGF inhibitors in a variety of malignancies are ongoing. Recently, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab; Avastin) has been approved by the FDA as a first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with chemotherapy. Furthermore, VEGF is implicated in intraocular neovascularization associated with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.
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            The B7-H1 (PD-L1) T lymphocyte-inhibitory molecule is expressed in breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: correlation with important high-risk prognostic factors.

            B7-H1 molecule increases the apoptosis of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes and reduces their immunogenicity. Breast cancer is the second most common cause of mortality after lung cancer. Direct evidence linking B7-H1 with cancer has been shown in several malignancies; however, its expression in breast cancer has not been investigated. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of the B7-H1 molecule in 44 breast cancer specimens and to study its correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. The expression of B7-H1 was shown in 22 of 44 patients and was not restricted to the tumor epithelium (15 of 44, 34% in tumor cells), but was also expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL; 18 of 44, 41%). Interestingly, intratumor expression of B7-H1 was significantly associated with histologic grade III-negative (P = .012), estrogen receptor-negative (P = .036), and progesterone receptor-negative (P = .040) patients. In addition, the expression of B7-H1 in TIL was associated with large tumor size (P = .042), histologic grade III (P = .015), positivity of Her2/neu status (P = .019), and severe tumor lymphocyte infiltration (P = .001). Taken together, these data suggest that B7-H1 may be an important risk factor in breast cancer patients and may represent a potential immunotherapeutic target using monoclonal antibody against the B7-H1 molecule.
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              MicroRNA miR-29 modulates expression of immunoinhibitory molecule B7-H3: potential implications for immune based therapy of human solid tumors.

              B7-H3, a surface immunomodulatory glycoprotein, inhibits natural killer cells and T cells. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) 8H9 is specific for 4Ig-B7-H3, the long and principal form of B7-H3. Early results from radioimmunotherapy using 8H9 have shown promise in patients with metastatic solid tumors to the central nervous system. Whereas B7-H3 transcript was ubiquitously expressed in a wide spectrum of human solid tumors as well as human normal tissues, B7-H3 protein was preferentially expressed only in tumor tissues. By quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, all three isoforms of microRNA miR-29 (a, b, and c) were highly expressed in normal tissues. However, they were down-regulated in a broad spectrum of solid tumors, including neuroblastoma, sarcomas, brain tumors, and tumor cell lines. B7-H3 protein expression was inversely correlated with miR-29 levels in both cell lines and tumor tissues tested. Using luciferase reporter assay, miR-29a was shown to directly target B7-H3 3' untranslated region, and knock-in and knockdown of miR-29a led to down-regulation and up-regulation, respectively, of B7-H3 protein expression. The ability of miR-29 to control B7-H3 protein expression has implications in immune escape by solid tumors. Differential modulation of this key immunoinhibitory molecule in tumor versus normal tissues may advance both cell-mediated immunotherapy and antibody-based targeted strategies using the B7-H3-specific mAb 8H9.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Oncol
                Int. J. Oncol
                IJO
                International Journal of Oncology
                D.A. Spandidos
                1019-6439
                1791-2423
                January 2018
                01 November 2017
                01 November 2017
                : 52
                : 1
                : 127-138
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Oncology
                [2 ]Department of General Surgery and
                [3 ]Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006
                [4 ]PREMED Key Laboratory for Precision Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021
                [5 ]Center for Systems Biology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006
                [6 ]Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006
                [7 ]The Comprehensive Cancer Center, Suzhou Xiangcheng People's Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215000, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr Wei Li or Dr Meng-Dan Xu, Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China, E-mail: liwei10@ 123456suda.edu.cn ; dr_weili@ 123456163.com , E-mail: doctor_xmd@ 123456163.com ; mengdanxu@ 123456suda.edu.cn
                [*]

                Contributed equally

                Article
                ijo-52-01-0127
                10.3892/ijo.2017.4183
                5743384
                29115601
                Copyright: © Tang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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