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      A review of the trade in orchids and its implications for conservation

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          Target-enrichment strategies for next-generation sequencing.

          We have not yet reached a point at which routine sequencing of large numbers of whole eukaryotic genomes is feasible, and so it is often necessary to select genomic regions of interest and to enrich these regions before sequencing. There are several enrichment approaches, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. Here we describe our experiences with the leading target-enrichment technologies, the optimizations that we have performed and typical results that can be obtained using each. We also provide detailed protocols for each technology so that end users can find the best compromise between sensitivity, specificity and uniformity for their particular project.
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            Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction.

            Conservation through reserves alone is now considered unlikely to achieve protection of plant species necessary to mitigate direct losses of habitat and the pervasive impact of global climate change. Assisted translocation/migration represent new challenges in the face of climate change; species, particularly orchids, will need artificial assistance to migrate from hostile environments, across ecological barriers (alienated lands such as farmlands and built infrastructure) to new climatically buffered sites. The technology and science to underpin assisted migration concepts are in their infancy for plants in general, and orchids, with their high degree of rarity, represent a particularly challenging group for which these principles need to be developed. It is likely that orchids, more than any other plant family, will be in the front-line of species to suffer large-scale extinction events as a result of climate change. The South West Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) is the only global biodiversity hotspot in Australia and represents an ideal test-bed for development of orchid conservation principles. Orchids comprise 6 % of all threatened vascular plants in the SWAFR, with 76 out of the 407 species known for the region having a high level of conservation risk. The situation in the SWAFR is a portent of the global crisis in terrestrial orchid conservation, and it is a region where innovative conservation solutions will be required if the impending wave of extinction is to be averted. Major threatening processes are varied, and include land clearance, salinity, burning, weed encroachment, disease and pests. This is compounded by highly specialized pollinators (locally endemic native invertebrates) and, in the most threatened groups such as hammer orchids (Drakaea) and spider orchids (Caladenia), high levels of mycorrhizal specialization. Management and development of effective conservation strategies for SWAFR orchids require a wide range of integrated scientific approaches to mitigate impacts that directly influence ecological traits critical for survival. In response to threats to orchid species, integrated conservation approaches have been adopted (including ex situ and translocation principles) in the SWAFR with the result that a significant, multidisciplinary approach is under development to facilitate conservation of some of the most threatened taxa and build expertise to carry out assisted migration to new sites. Here the past two decades of orchid conservation research in the SWAFR and the role of research-based approaches for managing effective orchid conservation in a global biodiversity hotspot are reviewed.
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              From barcodes to genomes: extending the concept of DNA barcoding.

              DNA barcoding has had a major impact on biodiversity science. The elegant simplicity of establishing massive scale databases for a few barcode loci is continuing to change our understanding of species diversity patterns, and continues to enhance human abilities to distinguish among species. Capitalizing on the developments of next generation sequencing technologies and decreasing costs of genome sequencing, there is now the opportunity for the DNA barcoding concept to be extended to new kinds of genomic data. We illustrate the benefits and capacity to do this, and also note the constraints and barriers to overcome before it is truly scalable. We advocate a twin track approach: (i) continuation and acceleration of global efforts to build the DNA barcode reference library of life on earth using standard DNA barcodes and (ii) active development and application of extended DNA barcodes using genome skimming to augment the standard barcoding approach.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0024-4074
                1095-8339
                December 13 2017
                December 13 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1093/botlinnean/box083
                ad546a57-9e86-4bc6-836f-cb44e4ccee51
                © 2017

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