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      Induction of mucosal immunity through systemic immunization: Phantom or reality?

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          ABSTRACT

          Generation of protective immunity at mucosal surfaces can greatly assist the host defense against pathogens which either cause disease at the mucosal epithelial barriers or enter the host through these surfaces. Although mucosal routes of immunization, such as intranasal and oral, are being intensely explored and appear promising for eliciting protective mucosal immunity in mammals, their application in clinical practice has been limited due to technical and safety related challenges. Most of the currently approved human vaccines are administered via systemic (such as intramuscular and subcutaneous) routes. Whereas these routes are acknowledged as being capable to elicit antigen-specific systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, they are generally perceived as incapable of generating IgA responses or protective mucosal immunity. Nevertheless, currently licensed systemic vaccines do provide effective protection against mucosal pathogens such as influenza viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, whether systemic immunization induces protective mucosal immunity remains a controversial topic. Here we reviewed the current literature and discussed the potential of systemic routes of immunization for the induction of mucosal immunity.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Hum Vaccin Immunother
          Hum Vaccin Immunother
          KHVI
          khvi20
          Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
          Taylor & Francis
          2164-5515
          2164-554X
          April 2016
          11 January 2016
          : 12
          : 4
          : 1070-1079
          Affiliations
          [a ] Human Health Therapeutics, National Research Council Canada , Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
          [b ] Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China
          [c ] Department of Biology, Brock University , St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
          Author notes
          CONTACT Wangxue Chen wangxue.chen@ 123456nrc.gc.ca National Research Council Canada Human Health Therapeutics Portfolio (HTT) 100 Sussex Drive , Room 3100 Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 Canada.

          Color versions of one or more of the figures in this article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/khvi.

          Article
          PMC4962944 PMC4962944 4962944 1114195
          10.1080/21645515.2015.1114195
          4962944
          26752023
          © 2016 Crown copyright
          Page count
          Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 100, Pages: 10
          Categories
          Reviews

          adjuvant, IgA, mucosal immunity, systemic immunization

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