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      Social Defeat, Psychotic Symptoms, and Crime in Young Caribbean Immigrants to Rotterdam


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          Background: The negative experience of being excluded from the majority group (social defeat) may be associated with psychosis in immigrants. The social defeat hypothesis is supported by the high frequency of perceived discrimination and acculturation problems in psychotic immigrants. In addition, social defeat may lead to crime through social problems such as unemployment, school dropout, a broken family structure, or psychotic symptoms.

          Methods: We assessed the association between social defeat and acculturation on the one hand and broadly defined psychotic symptoms and crime on the other in Caribbean immigrants to Rotterdam who are aged 18–24 years. The municipality of Rotterdam provided data about Caribbean immigrants to Rotterdam. Acculturation, social defeat (perceived discrimination, sense of control, and evaluation of self and others), psychotic symptoms, and crime were assessed using online questionnaires.

          Results: Social defeat was associated with psychotic symptoms in women (β = 0.614, p < 0.001). This relation applied particularly to the negative self-perception domain of social defeat. Acculturation was associated with neither social defeat nor psychotic symptoms or crime and did not mediate the association between social defeat and psychosis.

          Conclusion: The social defeat hypothesis of psychosis may be gender-specific valid but does not extend to crime.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Ethnic Identity, Immigration, and Well-Being: An Interactional Perspective

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            Self-Control, Violent Offending, and Homicide Victimization: Assessing the General Theory of Crime

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              Validity and reliability of the CAPE: a self-report instrument for the measurement of psychotic experiences in the general population.

              General population longitudinal cohort studies have demonstrated the prognostic validity of self-reported psychotic experiences, but data on reliability and cross-validation with interview-based measures of these experiences are sparse. This study tested the reliability and validity of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE42). At baseline, the CAPE42 was used to measure the subclinical psychosis phenotype in a general population sample (n = 765). At follow-up (mean interval: 7.7 months), the Structured Interview for Schizotypy, Revised (SIS-R), the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the CAPE42 were administered (n = 510). Baseline self-reported dimensions of psychosis were specifically and independently associated with their equivalent interview-based dimension at follow-up (standardized effect sizes of 0.4-0.5) and with their equivalent self-reported measure (standardized effect sizes of 0.6-0.8). The results indicate that self-reported dimensions of psychotic experiences in general population samples appear to be stable, reliable and valid.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychiatry
                Front Psychiatry
                Front. Psychiatry
                Frontiers in Psychiatry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 April 2021
                : 12
                1School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University , Maastricht, Netherlands
                2Psychiaters Maatschap Antillen , Willemstad, Curaçao
                3Parnassia Psychiatric Institute , The Hague, Netherlands
                4Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen , Groningen, Netherlands
                5Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University , New York, NY, United States
                6Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht Brain Centre, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University , Utrecht, Netherlands
                7Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center , Maastricht, Netherlands
                8Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London , London, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Peter Kirsch, University of Heidelberg, Germany

                Reviewed by: Macià Buades-Rotger, University of Lübeck, Germany; Sandy Overgaauw, Leiden University, Netherlands

                *Correspondence: David J. Vinkers info@ 123456vinkers-psychiater.nl

                This article was submitted to Social Cognition, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry

                Copyright © 2021 Vinkers, Van de Vorst, Hoek and Van Os.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 7, Words: 5348
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                social defeat, acculturation, psychosis, crime, caribbean, immigrants


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