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      Anxiety, not regulation tendency, predicts how individuals regulate in the laboratory: An exploratory comparison of self-report and psychophysiology

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          Abstract

          Anxiety influences how individuals experience and regulate emotions in a variety of ways. For example, individuals with lower anxiety tend to cognitively reframe (reappraise) negative emotion and those with higher anxiety tend to suppress negative emotion. Research has also investigated these individual differences with psychophysiology. These lines of research assume coherence between how individuals regulate outside the laboratory, typically measured with self-report, and how they regulate during an experiment. Indeed, performance during experiments is interpreted as an indication of future behavior outside the laboratory, yet this relationship is seldom directly explored. To address this gap, we computed psychophysiological profiles of uninstructed (natural) regulation in the laboratory and explored the coherence between these profiles and a) self-reported anxiety and b) self-reported regulation tendency. Participants viewed negative images and were instructed to reappraise, suppress or naturally engage. Electrodermal and facial electromyography signals were recorded to compute a multivariate psychophysiological profile of regulation. Participants with lower anxiety exhibited similar profiles when naturally regulating and following instructions to reappraise, suggesting they naturally reappraised more. Participants with higher anxiety exhibited similar profiles when naturally regulating and following instructions to suppress, suggesting they naturally suppressed more. However, there was no association between self-reported reappraisal or suppression tendency and psychophysiology. These exploratory results indicate that anxiety, but not regulation tendency, predicts how individuals regulate emotion in the laboratory. These findings suggest that how individuals report regulating in the real world does not map on to how they regulate in the laboratory. Taken together, this underscores the importance of developing emotion-regulation interventions and paradigms that more closely align to and predict real-world outcomes.

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          Most cited references 69

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          The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion.

          Emotion regulation strategies are thought to differ in when and how they influence the emotion-generative process. However, no study to date has directly probed the neural bases of two contrasting (e.g., cognitive versus behavioral) emotion regulation strategies. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine cognitive reappraisal (a cognitive strategy thought to have its impact early in the emotion-generative process) and expressive suppression (a behavioral strategy thought to have its impact later in the emotion-generative process). Seventeen women viewed 15 sec neutral and negative emotion-eliciting films under four conditions--watch-neutral, watch-negative, reappraise-negative, and suppress-negative--while providing emotion experience ratings and having their facial expressions videotaped. Reappraisal resulted in early (0-4.5 sec) prefrontal cortex (PFC) responses, decreased negative emotion experience, and decreased amygdala and insular responses. Suppression produced late (10.5-15 sec) PFC responses, decreased negative emotion behavior and experience, but increased amygdala and insular responses. These findings demonstrate the differential efficacy of reappraisal and suppression on emotional experience, facial behavior, and neural response and highlight intriguing differences in the temporal dynamics of these two emotion regulation strategies.
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            Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being.

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              The tie that binds? Coherence among emotion experience, behavior, and physiology.

              Emotion theories commonly postulate that emotions impose coherence across multiple response systems. However, empirical support for this coherence postulate is surprisingly limited. In the present study, the authors (a) examined the within-individual associations among experiential, facial behavioral, and peripheral physiological responses during emotional responding and (b) assessed whether emotion intensity moderates these associations. Experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses were measured second-by-second during a film that induced amusement and sadness. Results indicate that experience and behavior were highly associated but that physiological responses were only modestly associated with experience and behavior. Intensity of amusement experience was associated with greater coherence between behavior and physiological responding; intensity of sadness experience was not. These findings provide new evidence about response system coherence in emotions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                12 March 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America
                [2 ] Program in Educational Neuroscience, Gallaudet University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Education and Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of America
                University of Colorado Denver, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-17012
                10.1371/journal.pone.0247246
                7954312
                33711022
                ad6a0918-1d08-4c56-8ba9-674992650a0a
                © 2021 Burr et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 20
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008299, Dartmouth College;
                The study was supported by the Dartmouth College Department of Education.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Anxiety
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Anxiety
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Bioassays and Physiological Analysis
                Electrophysiological Techniques
                Muscle Electrophysiology
                Electromyography
                Engineering and Technology
                Signal Processing
                Signal Filtering
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Neuroscience
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Neuroscience
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Nonverbal Communication
                Facial Expressions
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Nonverbal Communication
                Facial Expressions
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Custom metadata
                The data used in this study are available at https://osf.io/j6h49/. Analysis scripts are available at https://github.com/daisyburr/DoYouKnowHowYouRegulate-.

                Uncategorized

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