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      Surgical Treatment of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Complicated by Pulmonary Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a group of complex congenital heart abnormalities. Preoperative pulmonary hypertension (PH) is considered an important risk factor for early death during the surgical treatment of DORV. The aim of this study was to report our experience on surgical treatment of DORV complicated by PH.

          Methods:

          From June 2004 to November 2016, 61 patients (36 males and 25 females) aged 2 weeks to 26 years (median: 0.67 years and interquartile range: 0.42–1.67 years) with DORV (two great arteries overriding at least 50%) complicated by PH underwent surgical treatment in our center. All patients were categorized according to surgical age and lesion type, respectively. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) were measured directly before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established and after CPB was removed. An intracardiac channel procedure was performed in 37 patients, arterial switch procedure in 19 patients, Rastelli procedure in three patient, Senning procedure in one patients, and Mustard procedure in one patient. The Student's t-test and Chi-squared test were performed to evaluate clinical outcomes of the surgical timing and operation choice.

          Results:

          Fifty-five patients had uneventful recovery. PASP fell from 55.3 ± 11.2 mmHg to 34.7 ± 11.6 mmHg ( t = 14.05, P < 0.001), PADP fell from 29.7 ± 12.5 mmHg to 18.6 ± 7.9 mmHg ( t = 7.39, P < 0.001), and mPAP fell from 40.3 ± 10.6 mmHg to 25.7 ± 8.3 mmHg ( t = 11.85, P < 0.001). Six (9.8%) patients died owing to complications including low cardiac output syndrome in two patients, respiratory failure in two, pulmonary hemorrhage in one, and sudden death in one patient. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) dropped significantly in infant and child patients. Mortality of both infants (13.9%) and adults (33.3%) was high.

          Conclusions:

          PAP of patients with DORV complicated by PH can be expected to fall significantly after surgery. An arterial switch procedure can achieve excellent results in patients with transposition of the great arteries type. Higher incidence of complications may occur in patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) type before 1 year of age. For those with remote VSD type, VSD enlargement and right ventricle outflow tract reconstruction are usually required with acceptable results. The degree of aortic overriding does not influence surgical outcome.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Predicting survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension: insights from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL).

          Factors that determine survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) drive clinical management. A quantitative survival prediction tool has not been established for research or clinical use. Data from 2716 patients with PAH enrolled consecutively in the US Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL) were analyzed to assess predictors of 1-year survival. We identified independent prognosticators of survival and derived a multivariable, weighted risk formula for clinical use. One-year survival from the date of enrollment was 91.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.9 to 92.1). In a multivariable analysis with Cox proportional hazards, variables independently associated with increased mortality included pulmonary vascular resistance >32 Wood units (hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; 95% CI, 2.0 to 8.3), PAH associated with portal hypertension (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.4 to 5.4), modified New York Heart Association/World Health Organization functional class IV (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2 to 4.4), men >60 years of age (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0), and family history of PAH (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.0). Renal insufficiency, PAH associated with connective tissue disease, functional class III, mean right atrial pressure, resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate, 6-minute walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide, percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and pericardial effusion on echocardiogram all predicted mortality. Based on these multivariable analyses, a prognostic equation was derived and validated by bootstrapping technique. We identified key predictors of survival based on the patient's most recent evaluation and formulated a contemporary prognostic equation. Use of this tool may allow the individualization and optimization of therapeutic strategies. Serial follow-up and reassessment are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214.
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            Integration of clinical and hemodynamic parameters in the prediction of long-term survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

            Current management guidelines for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) recommend a treatment choice based primarily on World Health Organization (WHO) functional class. This study was designed to assess how the incorporation of readily obtained clinical and test-based information may significantly improve the prediction of outcomes over functional class alone.
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              Compelling evidence of long-term outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension? A clinical perspective.

              Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease of the pulmonary arterial circulation that is characterized by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance, eventually leading to right-heart failure and death. There are currently 3 classes of drugs approved for the treatment of PAH: prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. All of these therapies have been approved for use on the basis of relatively small, short-term studies, yet it is common for each to be administered (alone or in combination) over the lifetime of a patient with PAH. Very few prospective, well-controlled PAH studies have examined long-term clinical outcomes associated with current medical therapy. Therefore, data that support the long-term therapeutic benefits of these long-term PAH therapies are limited and derived primarily from uncontrolled, observational studies. In this perspective, the authors review the published research to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the data that support the long-term clinical benefit of current PAH therapies. The authors conclude that current medical therapies approved for the treatment of PAH can provide sustained benefits in hemodynamic function and exercise capacity. The cumulative evidence, in the form of meta-analysis and registry data, suggest that patients are living longer compared with untreated patients; the reasons are likely multifactorial. Although definitive evidence will require randomized and properly controlled long-term trials, the current evidence supports the long-term use of these drugs for the treatment of patients with PAH. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Tsinghua University, Medical Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100016, China
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Prof. Qing-Yu Wu, Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Tsinghua University, Medical Center, Tsinghua University, No. 6, Jiuxianqiao 1 st Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016, China E-Mail: wuqingyu@ 123456mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
                Journal
                Chin Med J (Engl)
                Chin. Med. J
                CMJ
                Chinese Medical Journal
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0366-6999
                20 February 2017
                : 130
                : 4
                : 409-413
                CMJ-130-409
                10.4103/0366-6999.199827
                5324376
                28218213
                Copyright: © 2017 Chinese Medical Journal

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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