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      Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis : A Review of Neuropsychological Assessments

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          Abstract

          Of the more than two million people worldwide with multiple sclerosis, 40% to 65% experience cognitive impairment, many of them early in the course of the disease. Cognitive impairment has been found in patients with all subtypes of multiple sclerosis. Because both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions may improve patients' brain function, cognitive assessment should be a routine part of the clinical evaluation. Traditional paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests and batteries can help detect and monitor patients' cognitive problems. Computerized cognitive batteries also show promise. Controversy continues over which test is most reliable at assessing cognitive impairment in both everyday clinical practice and research. Each battery has possible disadvantages, such as practice effects, poor sensitivity and specificity, and questionable applicability to multiple sclerosis. Based on our review of the literature, we describe the tests that are currently being used or that might be used in assessing cognitive deficits in patients with multiple sclerosis, and we summarize the strengths and limitations of each.

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          Most cited references 104

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          “Mini-mental state”

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            The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment.

            To develop a 10-minute cognitive screening tool (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA) to assist first-line physicians in detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical state that often progresses to dementia. Validation study. A community clinic and an academic center. Ninety-four patients meeting MCI clinical criteria supported by psychometric measures, 93 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score > or =17), and 90 healthy elderly controls (NC). The MoCA and MMSE were administered to all participants, and sensitivity and specificity of both measures were assessed for detection of MCI and mild AD. Using a cutoff score 26, the MMSE had a sensitivity of 18% to detect MCI, whereas the MoCA detected 90% of MCI subjects. In the mild AD group, the MMSE had a sensitivity of 78%, whereas the MoCA detected 100%. Specificity was excellent for both MMSE and MoCA (100% and 87%, respectively). MCI as an entity is evolving and somewhat controversial. The MoCA is a brief cognitive screening tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting MCI as currently conceptualized in patients performing in the normal range on the MMSE.
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              Is Open Access

              Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 Revisions to the McDonald criteria

              New evidence and consensus has led to further revision of the McDonald Criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The use of imaging for demonstration of dissemination of central nervous system lesions in space and time has been simplified, and in some circumstances dissemination in space and time can be established by a single scan. These revisions simplify the Criteria, preserve their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, address their applicability across populations, and may allow earlier diagnosis and more uniform and widespread use. Ann Neurol 2011
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cognitive And Behavioral Neurology
                Cognitive And Behavioral Neurology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1543-3633
                2016
                June 2016
                : 29
                : 2
                : 55-67
                Article
                10.1097/WNN.0000000000000097
                27336803
                © 2016

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