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      Incidence of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Its Association with Pulse Pressure: A Prospective Cohort Study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The association of pulse pressure and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has seldom been examined using a prospective design. This study aimed to investigate the association of pulse pressure with PAD incidence in an elderly general population.

          Methods

          We utilized data from a cohort conducted in Beijing with additionally 2-year follow-up time. PAD was defined as an ankle brachial index value <0.9 in either leg. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to quantify the magnitude of pulse pressure on PAD incidence.

          Results

          During a 2-year follow-up time, 357 of 4,201 (8.5%) participants developed PAD with 105 (6.9%) men and 252 (9.4%) women, respectively. After adjusting for baseline age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for people with pulse pressure greater than 60 mmHg was 2.20 (1.53, 3.15) compared with those whose pulse pressure was less than 40 mmHg. A linear trend was observed for the association of pulse pressure with PAD.

          Conclusion

          Higher pulse pressure was associated with higher PAD incidence.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Endothelial dysfunction in peripheral arterial disease is related to increase in plasma markers of inflammation and severity of peripheral circulatory impairment but not to classic risk factors and atherosclerotic burden.

          We undertook this study to evaluate in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) the relationship of endothelial dysfunction, which is directly related to progression and clinical complications of atherosclerosis, with variables including classic risk factors, inflammation, severity of peripheral circulatory impairment, and atherosclerotic burden. This cross-sectional study included outpatients seen in an academic angiologic unit. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with PAD (ankle/brachial index [ABI] < 0.90) were studied. The control group consisted of 30 age-matched and sex-matched healthy subjects. Main outcome measures were endothelial function in the form of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, severity of PAD according to ABI, and atherosclerotic burden, ie, atherosclerosis in one leg or in two or more other sites. Compared with patients with FMD greater than 6.2% (ie, 5th percentile of FMD in control subjects), patients with FMD less than 6.2% had a similar prevalence of classic risk factors but higher median levels of CRP (1.6 vs 6.0 mg/L; P <.01) and fibrinogen (200 vs 374 mg/dL; P <.01). The two inflammatory markers were negatively correlated with FMD (P <.01). ABI was higher in patients with FMD greater than 6.2% than in those with worse endothelial function (0.72 +/- 0.15 vs 0.62 +/- 16; P <.01); there was no difference with respect to atherosclerotic burden. Multivariate analysis showed that the association of CRP, fibrinogen, and ABI with FMD less than 6.2% was unrelated to classic risk factors. In a second model, which included CRP, fibrinogen, and ABI, all three variables were independently related to FMD less than 6.2%. Inflammation and severity of circulatory impairment are implicated in the pathophysiology of dysfunctional endothelium in PAD.
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            Are Changes in Heart Rate Variability in Middle‐Aged and Older People Normative or Caused by Pathological Conditions? Findings From a Large Population‐Based Longitudinal Cohort Study

            Background No study to date has investigated longitudinal trajectories of cardiac autonomic modulation changes with aging; therefore, we lack evidence showing whether these changes occur naturally or are secondary to disease or medication use. This study tested whether heart rate variability (HRV) trajectories from middle to older age are largely normative or caused by pathological changes with aging in a large prospective cohort. We further assessed whether HRV changes were modified by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or habitual physical activity. Methods and Results This study involved 3176 men and 1238 women initially aged 44 to 69 years (1997–1999) from the UK Whitehall II population‐based cohort. We evaluated time‐ and frequency‐domain HRV measures of short‐term recordings at 3 time points over a 10‐year period. Random mixed models with time‐varying covariates were applied. Cross‐sectionally, HRV measures were lower for men than for women, for participants with cardiometabolic conditions, and for participants reporting use of medications other than beta blockers. Longitudinally, HRV measures decreased significantly with aging in both sexes, with faster decline in younger age groups. HRV trajectories were not explained by increased prevalence of cardiometabolic problems and/or medication use. In women, cardiometabolic problems were associated with faster decline in the standard deviation of all intervals between R waves with normal‐to‐normal conduction, in low‐frequency HRV, and in low‐frequency HRV in normalized units. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and habitual physical activity did not have significant effects on HRV trajectories. Conclusions Our investigation showed a general pattern and timing of changes in indices of cardiac autonomic modulation from middle to older age. These changes seem likely to reflect the normal aging process rather than being secondary to cardiometabolic problems and medication use.
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              Incidence of and risk factors for asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease: a longitudinal study.

              The current study describes the age- and sex-specific incidence rates and risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) among 2,327 subjects and the incidence of intermittent claudication in asymptomatic PAOD subjects. The study population was selected from 18 general practice centers in the Netherlands. PAOD was assessed with the ankle-brachial blood pressure index, and intermittent claudication was assessed with a modified version of the Rose questionnaire. After 7.2 years, the overall incidence rate for asymptomatic PAOD, using the person-years method, was 9.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.3, 18.8) per 1,000 person-years at risk. The rate was 7.8 (95% CI: 4.9, 20.3) for men and 12.4 (95% CI: 7.7, 24.8) for women. For symptomatic PAOD, the incidence rate was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.7, 7.5) overall, 0.4 (95% CI: 0.3, 10.0) for men, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0, 10.3) for women. Multivariate analyses showed that increasing age, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were the most important risk factors. The overall incidence rate for intermittent claudication among PAOD subjects who were asymptomatic at baseline was 90.5 per 1,000 person-years at risk (95% CI: 36.4, 378.3). The incidence of asymptomatic PAOD was higher than the incidence of symptomatic PAOD, with women developing PAOD more often than men. In the development of preventive strategies, modification of atherosclerotic risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, and diabetes, should be the main goals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                24 November 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University , Kunming, China
                [2] 2School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou, China
                [3] 3Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences , Jinan, China
                [4] 4Wuqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Tianjin, China
                [5] 5Department of Health Education and Health Behavior, School of Public Health, Fudan University , Shanghai, China
                [6] 6Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mingyi Wang, National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States

                Reviewed by: Francesca Seta, Boston University School of Medicine, United States; Javier Ena, Hospital Marina Baixa, Spain

                *Correspondence: Haining Yu, yu.haining@ 123456outlook.com

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Endocrinology of Aging, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2017.00333
                5705627
                ad775e72-b0b4-442f-b1bc-d5771b8c9b19
                Copyright © 2017 Mao, Huang, Yu, Xu, Yu, Yu and Zhan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 6, Words: 3938
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Original Research

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