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      Recapitulating kidney development in vitro by priming and differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells in monolayers

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          Abstract

          In order to harness the potential of pluripotent stem cells, we need to understand how to differentiate them to our target cell types. Here, we developed a protocol to differentiate mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to renal progenitors in a step-wise manner. Microarrays were used to track the transcriptional changes at each stage of differentiation and we observed that genes associated with metanephros, ureteric bud, and blood vessel development were significantly upregulated as the cells differentiated towards renal progenitors. Priming the ESCs and optimizing seeding cell density and growth factor concentrations helped improve differentiation efficiency. Organoids were used to determine the developmental potential of the renal progenitor cells. Aggregated renal progenitors gave rise to organoids consisting of LTL+/E-cadherin+ proximal tubules, cytokeratin+ ureteric bud-derived tubules, and extracellular matrix proteins secreted by the cells themselves. Over-expression of key kidney developmental genes, Pax2, Six1, Eya1, and Hox11 paralogs, during differentiation did not improve differentiation efficiency. Altogether, we developed a protocol to differentiate mouse ESCs in a manner that recapitulates embryonic kidney development and showed that precise gene regulation is essential for proper differentiation to occur.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Kidney organoids from human iPS cells contain multiple lineages and model human nephrogenesis.

          The human kidney contains up to 2 million epithelial nephrons responsible for blood filtration. Regenerating the kidney requires the induction of the more than 20 distinct cell types required for excretion and the regulation of pH, and electrolyte and fluid balance. We have previously described the simultaneous induction of progenitors for both collecting duct and nephrons via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Paradoxically, although both are of intermediate mesoderm in origin, collecting duct and nephrons have distinct temporospatial origins. Here we identify the developmental mechanism regulating the preferential induction of collecting duct versus kidney mesenchyme progenitors. Using this knowledge, we have generated kidney organoids that contain nephrons associated with a collecting duct network surrounded by renal interstitium and endothelial cells. Within these organoids, individual nephrons segment into distal and proximal tubules, early loops of Henle, and glomeruli containing podocytes elaborating foot processes and undergoing vascularization. When transcription profiles of kidney organoids were compared to human fetal tissues, they showed highest congruence with first trimester human kidney. Furthermore, the proximal tubules endocytose dextran and differentially apoptose in response to cisplatin, a nephrotoxicant. Such kidney organoids represent powerful models of the human organ for future applications, including nephrotoxicity screening, disease modelling and as a source of cells for therapy.
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            Redefining the in vivo origin of metanephric nephron progenitors enables generation of complex kidney structures from pluripotent stem cells.

            Recapitulating three-dimensional (3D) structures of complex organs, such as the kidney, from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a major challenge. Here, we define the developmental origins of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM), which generates most kidney components. Unexpectedly, we find that posteriorly located T(+) MM precursors are developmentally distinct from Osr1(+) ureteric bud progenitors during the postgastrulation stage, and we identify phasic Wnt stimulation and stage-specific growth factor addition as molecular cues that promote their development into the MM. We then use this information to derive MM from PSCs. These progenitors reconstitute the 3D structures of the kidney in vitro, including glomeruli with podocytes and renal tubules with proximal and distal regions and clear lumina. Furthermore, the glomeruli are efficiently vascularized upon transplantation. Thus, by reevaluating the developmental origins of metanephric progenitors, we have provided key insights into kidney specification in vivo and taken important steps toward kidney organogenesis in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Directing human embryonic stem cell differentiation towards a renal lineage generates a self-organizing kidney.

               M Takasato,  P Er,  M. Becroft (2014)
              With the prevalence of end-stage renal disease rising 8% per annum globally, there is an urgent need for renal regenerative strategies. The kidney is a mesodermal organ that differentiates from the intermediate mesoderm (IM) through the formation of a ureteric bud (UB) and the interaction between this bud and the adjacent IM-derived metanephric mesenchyme (MM). The nephrons arise from a nephron progenitor population derived from the MM (ref. ). The IM itself is derived from the posterior primitive streak. Although the developmental origin of the kidney is well understood, nephron formation in the human kidney is completed before birth. Hence, there is no postnatal stem cell able to replace lost nephrons. In this study, we have successfully directed the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through posterior primitive streak and IM under fully chemically defined monolayer culture conditions using growth factors used during normal embryogenesis. This differentiation protocol results in the synchronous induction of UB and MM that forms a self-organizing structure, including nephron formation, in vitro. Such hESC-derived components show broad renal potential ex vivo, illustrating the potential for pluripotent-stem-cell-based renal regeneration.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                rogers@lunenfeld.ca
                Journal
                NPJ Regen Med
                NPJ Regen Med
                NPJ Regenerative Medicine
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2057-3995
                20 April 2020
                20 April 2020
                2020
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0473 9881, GRID grid.416166.2, Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, , Mount Sinai Hospital, ; Toronto, ON Canada
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Physiology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, ON Canada
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, ON Canada
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 2938, GRID grid.17063.33, Institute of Medical Science, , University of Toronto, ; Toronto, ON Canada
                Article
                92
                10.1038/s41536-020-0092-5
                7171095
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100012171, Ontario Research Foundation (ORF);
                Award ID: ORF-RE#: RE-08
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Canadian Stem Cell Network
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                stem-cell differentiation, embryonic stem cells

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