Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and, if spread outside the epidermis, has a dismal prognosis. Before the approval of the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody ipilimumab and the BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, no other agents had demonstrated better results in terms of overall survival than the DNA-methylating compound dacarbazine (or its oral analog temozolomide). However, most patients with metastatic melanoma do not obtain long-lasting clinical benefit from ipilimumab and responses to BRAF inhibitors are short lived. Thus, combination therapies with inhibitors of DNA repair (e.g., poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP] inhibitors), novel immunomodulators (monoclonal antibodies against programmed death-1 [PD-1] or its ligand PD-L1), targeted therapies (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] kinase [MEK] or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibitors) or antiangiogenic agents are currently being investigated to improve the efficacy of antimelanoma therapies. This review discusses the implications of simultaneously targeting key regulators of melanoma cell proliferation/survival and immune responses to counteract resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.