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      Paeonol and danshensu combination attenuates apoptosis in myocardial infarcted rats by inhibiting oxidative stress: Roles of Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/Akt pathway

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          Abstract

          Paeonol and danshensu is the representative active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae Milthiorrhizae, respectively. Paeonol and danshensu combination (PDSS) has putative cardioprotective effects in treating ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the evidence for the protective effect is scarce and the pharmacological mechanisms of the combination remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PDSS on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in rats and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Assays of creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin I and T and histopathological analysis revealed PDSS significantly prevented myocardial injury induced by ISO. The ISO-induced profound elevation of oxidative stress was also suppressed by PDSS. TUNEL and caspase-3 activity assay showed that PDSS significantly inhibited apoptosis in myocardia. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of PDSS, we found PDSS enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in myocardial injured rats. Furthermore, PDSS increased phosphorylated PI3K and Akt, which may in turn activate antioxidative and antiapoptotic signaling events in rat. These present findings demonstrated that PDSS exerts significant cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The protective effect is, at least partly, via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and involvement of the PI3K/Akt cell survival signaling pathway.

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          Most cited references48

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          Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing.

          The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18-20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6-8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from whole pomegranates than in experimental juices obtained from the arils only (12-14 TEAC). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses of the juices revealed that commercial juices contained the pomegranate tannin punicalagin (1500-1900 mg/L) while only traces of this compound were detected in the experimental juice obtained from arils in the laboratory. This shows that pomegranate industrial processing extracts some of the hydrolyzable tannins present in the fruit rind. This could account for the higher antioxidant activity of commercial juices compared to the experimental ones. In addition, anthocyanins, ellagic acid derivatives, and hydrolyzable tannins were detected and quantified in the pomegranate juices.
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            Redox signaling in cardiac myocytes

            The heart has complex mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of an oxygen supply–demand balance necessary for its contractile function in response to physiological fluctuations in workload as well as in response to chronic stresses such as hypoxia, ischemia, and overload. Redox-sensitive signaling pathways are centrally involved in many of these homeostatic and stress-response mechanisms. Here, we review the main redox-regulated pathways that are involved in cardiac myocyte excitation–contraction coupling, differentiation, hypertrophy, and stress responses. We discuss specific sources of endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (e.g., mitochondria and NADPH oxidases of the Nox family), the particular pathways and processes that they affect, the role of modulators such as thioredoxin, and the specific molecular mechanisms that are involved—where this knowledge is available. A better understanding of this complex regulatory system may allow the development of more specific therapeutic strategies for heart diseases.
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              PI3K is a key molecule in the Nrf2-mediated regulation of antioxidative proteins by hemin in human neuroblastoma cells.

              Oxidative stress and ferrous metabolism are important in the pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease. In dopaminergic neurons, several stress proteins are upregulated under oxidative stress. To clarify this mechanism, we investigated hemin-related signal transduction and the induction of oxidative stress-related proteins in SH-SY5Y cells. We identified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Nrf2 as important molecules in the induction of heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin, and peroxiredoxin-I. PI3K-related signal controlled Nrf2 activation, and consequently, PI3K inhibitors blocked the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and induction of stress proteins. These observations suggest that PI3K and Nrf2 are key molecules in maintaining suitable conditions under oxidative stress and ferrous metabolism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                29 March 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Natural Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University , 169 West Changle Road, Xi’an 710032, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Aerospace Physiology, School of Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University , 169 West Changle Road, Xi’an 710032, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University , 169 West Changle Road, Xi’an 710032, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Collaborative Innovation Center for Chinese Medicine in Qinba Moutains , 169 West Changle Road, Xi’an 710032, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep23693
                10.1038/srep23693
                4810373
                27021411
                ad989575-b6c7-4b7c-b23b-1f8e857786de
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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