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      Ambrosia artemisiifolia control in agricultural areas: effect of grassland seeding and herbivory by the exotic leaf beetle Ophraella communa

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      NeoBiota

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Ambrosiaartemisiifolia(common ragweed) is an invasive species native to North America and was accidentally introduced to Europe in the 19 thcentury. Widespread in disturbed habitats, it is a major weed in spring-sown crops and it causes serious allergic rhinitis and asthma due to its allergenic pollen. The aim of this research was to analyse the effects of both competitive vegetation and herbivory by Ophraellacommunato control A.artemisiifoliain an agricultural area of north-western Italy. Hayseed mixtures, both over-seeded over the resident plant community or after ploughing, when seeded before the winter season, were able to suppress the establishment of A.artemisiifoliaas well as to reduce its growth in terms of plant height and inflorescence size. Defoliation of A.artemisiifoliaby O.communaat the end of the growing season was conspicuous but most of the plants still produced flowers and seeds. However, significant O.communaattack was recorded for reproductive structures. As for non-target species, O.communawas mainly recorded on Asteraceae, with low density and low degree of damage. Reduction of inflorescence size due to competitive vegetation and damage to male flowers by O.communamay diminish the amount of available pollen. The results of this study may be useful for the implementation of management measures to control A.artemisiifoliain agricultural areas using mixtures of native species.

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          Restoration through reassembly: plant traits and invasion resistance.

          One of the greatest challenges for ecological restoration is to create or reassemble plant communities that are resistant to invasion by exotic species. We examine how concepts pertaining to the assembly of plant communities can be used to strengthen resistance to invasion in restored communities. Community ecology theory predicts that an invasive species will be unlikely to establish if there is a species with similar traits present in the resident community or if available niches are filled. Therefore, successful restoration efforts should select native species with traits similar to likely invaders and include a diversity of functional traits. The success of trait-based approaches to restoration will depend largely on the diversity of invaders, on the strength of environmental factors and on dispersal dynamics of invasive and native species.
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            Community Succession and Assembly

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              Biological Flora of the British Isles:Ambrosia artemisiifolia

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NeoBiota
                NB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2488
                1619-0033
                March 16 2018
                March 16 2018
                : 38
                : 1-22
                Article
                10.3897/neobiota.38.23562
                © 2018

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