Manuel Ángel Gómez-Marcos 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , José Ignacio Recio-Rodríguez 1 , 2 , 3 , María Carmen Patino-Alonso 1 , 2 , 5 , Cristina Agudo-Conde 1 , 2 , 3 , Emiliano Rodríguez-Sanchez 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Jose Angel Maderuelo-Fernandez 1 , 2 , 3 , Leticia Gómez-Sánchez 1 , 2 , Marta Gomez-Sanchez 1 , 2 , Luís García-Ortiz 1 , 2 , 3 , 6 , LOD-DIABETES Group
1 June 2016
We prospectively examined the impact of type 2 diabetes compared with metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the development of vascular disease over 4 years as determined by anatomic and functional markers of vascular disease. By comparing the vascular outcomes of the 2 disorders, we seek to determine the independent effect of elevated glucose levels on vascular disease.
We performed a prospective observational study involving 112 patients (68 with type 2 diabetes and 44 with MetS) who were followed for 4 years.
Measurements included blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hs-c-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels. We also evaluated vascular, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and ankle/brachial index, heart and renal target organ damage (TOD). The haemodynamic parameters were central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) augmentation indices.
In year 4, participants with type 2 diabetes had increased IMT thickness. These patients had more plaques and an IMT>0.90 mm. In participants with MetS, we only found an increase in the number of plaques. We found no changes in PWV, CAIx and PAIx. The patients with diabetes had a greater frequency of vascular TOD. There were no differences neither in renal nor cardiac percentage of TOD in the patients with MetS or diabetes mellitus type 2.
This prospective study showed that the evolution of vascular TOD is different in participants with type 2 diabetes compared with those with MetS. While IMT and PWV increased in type 2 diabetes, these were not modified in MetS. The renal and cardiac TOD evolution, as well as the PAIx and CAIx, did not change in either group.