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      Absence of Colony Stimulation Factor-1 Receptor Results in Loss of Microglia, Disrupted Brain Development and Olfactory Deficits


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          The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only in microglia and not neurons, astrocytes or glial cells. To study CSF-1R function we used mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Csflr gene. In these mice microglia are >99% depleted at embryonic day 16 and day 1 post-partum brain. At three weeks of age this microglial depletion continues in most regions of the brain although some contain clusters of rounded microglia. Despite the loss of microglia, embryonic brain development appears normal but during the post-natal period the brain architecture becomes perturbed with enlarged ventricles and regionally compressed parenchyma, phenotypes most prominent in the olfactory bulb and cortex. In the cortex there is increased neuronal density, elevated numbers of astrocytes but reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes. Csf1r nulls rarely survive to adulthood and therefore to study the role of CSF-1R in olfaction we used the viable null mutants in the Csf1 ( Csf1 op ) gene that encodes one of the two known CSF-1R ligands. Food-finding experiments indicate that olfactory capacity is significantly impaired in the absence of CSF-1. CSF-1R is therefore required for the development of microglia, for a fully functional olfactory system and the maintenance of normal brain structure.

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          A Distinct Macrophage Population Mediates Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Extravasation, Establishment and Growth

          Background The stromal microenvironment and particularly the macrophage component of primary tumors influence their malignant potential. However, at the metastatic site the role of these cells and their mechanism of actions for establishment and growth of metastases remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Using animal models of breast cancer metastasis, we show that a population of host macrophages displaying a distinct phenotype is recruited to extravasating pulmonary metastatic cells regardless of species of origin. Ablation of this macrophage population through three independent means (genetic and chemical) showed that these macrophages are required for efficient metastatic seeding and growth. Importantly, even after metastatic growth is established, ablation of this macrophage population inhibited subsequent growth. Furthermore, imaging of intact lungs revealed that macrophages are required for efficient tumor cell extravasation. Conclusion/Significance These data indicate a direct enhancement of metastatic growth by macrophages through their effects on tumor cell extravasation, survival and subsequent growth and identifies these cells as a new therapeutic target for treatment of metastatic disease.
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            Origin, homeostasis and function of Langerhans cells and other langerin-expressing dendritic cells.

            Langerhans cells (LCs) are a specialized subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that populate the epidermal layer of the skin. Langerin is a lectin that serves as a valuable marker for LCs in mice and humans. In recent years, new mouse models have led to the identification of other langerin(+) DC subsets that are not present in the epidermis, including a subset of DCs that is found in most non-lymphoid tissues. In this Review we describe new developments in the understanding of the biology of LCs and other langerin(+) DCs and discuss the challenges that remain in identifying the role of different DC subsets in tissue immunity.
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              Targeted disruption of the mouse colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene results in osteopetrosis, mononuclear phagocyte deficiency, increased primitive progenitor cell frequencies, and reproductive defects.

              X.-M. Dai (2002)
              The effects of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primary regulator of mononuclear phagocyte production, are thought to be mediated by the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R), encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene. To investigate the in vivo specificity of CSF-1 for the CSF-1R, the mouse Csf1r gene was inactivated. The phenotype of Csf1(-)/Csf1r(-) mice closely resembled the phenotype of CSF-1-nullizygous (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) mice, including the osteopetrotic, hematopoietic, tissue macrophage, and reproductive phenotypes. Compared with their wild-type littermates, splenic erythroid burst-forming unit and high-proliferative potential colony-forming cell levels in both Csf1(op)/Csf1(op) and Csf1(-)/Csf1r(-) mice were significantly elevated, consistent with a negative regulatory role of CSF-1 in erythropoiesis and the maintenance of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. The circulating CSF-1 concentration in Csf1r(-)/Csf1r(-) mice was elevated 20-fold, in agreement with the previously reported clearance of circulating CSF-1 by CSF-1R-mediated endocytosis and intracellular destruction. Despite their overall similarity, several phenotypic characteristics of the Csf1r(-)/Csf1r(-) mice were more severe than those of the Csf1(op)/Csf1(op) mice. The results indicate that all of the effects of CSF-1 are mediated via the CSF-1R, but that subtle effects of the CSF-1R could result from its CSF-1-independent activation.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                27 October 2011
                : 6
                : 10
                : e26317
                [1 ]Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
                [2 ]Dominick Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
                [3 ]Center for the Study of Reproductive Biology and Women's Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
                Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Germany
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JWP AE KD BE. Performed the experiments: BE LZ KD. Analyzed the data: BE LZ AE KD JWP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KD JWP. Wrote the paper: BE AE KD JWP.

                Erblich et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                : 6 July 2010
                : 23 September 2011
                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Research Article
                Developmental Biology
                Cell Differentiation
                Animal Genetics
                Developmental Neuroscience



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