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      Therapeutic potentials of naringin on polymethylmethacrylate induced osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis, in vitro and in vivo assessments

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          Wear debris associated periprosthetic osteolysis represents a major pathological process associated with the aseptic loosening of joint prostheses. Naringin is a major flavonoid identified in grapefruit. Studies have shown that naringin possesses many pharmacological properties including effects on bone metabolism. The current study evaluated the influence of naringin on wear debris induced osteoclastic bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The osteoclast precursor cell line RAW 264.7 was cultured and stimulated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles followed by treatment with naringin at several doses. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), calcium release, and gene expression profiles of TRAP, cathepsin K, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B were sequentially evaluated. PMMA challenged murine air pouch and the load bearing tibia titanium pin-implantation mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of naringin in controlling PMMA induced bone resorption. Histological analyses and biomechanical pullout tests were performed following the animal experimentation. The in vitro data clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effects of naringin in PMMA induced osteoclastogenesis. The naringin dose of 10 μg/mL exhibited the most significant influence on the suppression of TRAP activities. Naringin treatment also markedly decreased calcium release in the stimulated cell culture medium. The short-term air pouch mouse study revealed that local injection of naringin ameliorated the PMMA induced inflammatory tissue response and subsequent bone resorption. The long-term tibia pin-implantation mouse model study suggested that daily oral gavage of naringin at 300 mg/kg dosage for 30 days significantly alleviated the periprosthetic bone resorption. A significant increase of periprosthetic bone volume and regaining of the pin stability were found in naringin treated mice. Overall, this study suggests that naringin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to treat wear debris associated osteolysis.

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          RANK is the intrinsic hematopoietic cell surface receptor that controls osteoclastogenesis and regulation of bone mass and calcium metabolism.

          We have generated RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB) nullizygous mice to determine the molecular genetic interactions between osteoprotegerin, osteoprotegerin ligand, and RANK during bone resorption and remodeling processes. RANK(-/-) mice lack osteoclasts and have a profound defect in bone resorption and remodeling and in the development of the cartilaginous growth plates of endochondral bone. The osteopetrosis observed in these mice can be reversed by transplantation of bone marrow from rag1(-/-) (recombinase activating gene 1) mice, indicating that RANK(-/-) mice have an intrinsic defect in osteoclast function. Calciotropic hormones and proresorptive cytokines that are known to induce bone resorption in mice and human were administered to RANK(-/-) mice without inducing hypercalcemia, although tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment leads to the rare appearance of osteoclast-like cells near the site of injection. Osteoclastogenesis can be initiated in RANK(-/-) mice by transfer of the RANK cDNA back into hematopoietic precursors, suggesting a means to critically evaluate RANK structural features required for bone resorption. Together these data indicate that RANK is the intrinsic cell surface determinant that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand effects on bone resorption and remodeling as well as the physiological and pathological effects of calciotropic hormones and proresorptive cytokines.
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            The cellular and molecular biology of periprosthetic osteolysis.

            The generation of prosthetic implant wear after total joint arthroplasty is recognized as the major initiating event in development of periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening, the leading complication of this otherwise successful surgical procedure. We review current concepts of how wear debris causes osteolysis, and report ideas for prevention and treatment. Wear debris primarily targets macrophages and osteoclast precursor cells, although osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes also may be involved. Molecular responses include activation of MAP kinase pathways, transcription factors (including NFkappaB), and suppressors of cytokine signaling. This results in up-regulation of proinflammatory signaling and inhibition of the protective actions of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines such as interferon gamma. Strategies to reduce osteolysis by choosing bearing surface materials with reduced wear properties should be balanced by awareness that reducing particle size may increase biologic activity. There are no approved treatments for osteolysis despite the promise of therapeutic agents against proinflammatory mediators (such as tumor necrosis factor) and osteoclasts (bisphosphonates and molecules blocking receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand [RANKL] signaling) shown in animal models. Considerable efforts are underway to develop such therapies, to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention, and to develop effective outcome measures.
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              Polyethylene particles of a 'critical size' are necessary for the induction of cytokines by macrophages in vitro.

              Particulate wear debris from total hip prosthetic components can stimulate macrophages to produce mediators of osteolysis which may cause aseptic implant loosening. This study evaluated the in vitro response of murine peritoneal macrophages to polyethylene particles of definitive size distributions at varying volume doses. Ceridust 3615 polyethylene particles with a mean size of 0.21, 0.49, 4.3 and 7.2 microm and GUR 120 polyethylene resin with a mean size of 88 microm were co-cultured with C3H murine peritoneal macrophages at volume (microm)3 to cell number ratios of 100:1, 10:1, 1:1 and 0.1: 1. The secretion of IL-6, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was determined by ELISA. Significantly elevated levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were determined at 100:1 ratios when the macrophages were challenged with particles with a mean size of 0.49, 4.3 and 7.2 microm, and at 10:1 ratios for particles with a mean size of 0.49 and 4.3 microm. IL-6 production was significantly elevated at 100:1 ratios for mean particle sizes of 0.49 and 4.3 microm. Particles outside this range produced considerably less cytokine suggesting that both the size and volume (or number) of polyethylene particles are critical factors in macrophage activation. Therefore particles in the phagocytosable size range of 0.3-10 microm appear to be the most biologically active.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                10 December 2013
                : 8
                : 1-11
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Orthopedics, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Wichita, KS, USA
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital to Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Orthopaedic Research Institute, Via Christi Wichita Hospitals, Wichita, KS, USA
                Author notes

                *The first two authors contributed equally to this work

                Correspondence: Shang-You Yang, Orthopaedic Research Institute, Via Christi Wichita Hospitals, 929 N St. Francis Street, Wichita, KS, USA 67260, Tel +1 316 268 5455, Fax +1 316 291 4998, Email shang-you.yang@ 123456wichita.edu
                © 2014 Li et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution — Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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