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      TGFbeta-SMAD signal transduction: molecular specificity and functional flexibility.

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          Abstract

          Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily of growth factors initiate signal transduction through a bewildering complexity of ligand-receptor interactions. Signalling then converges to nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active SMAD complexes and gives rise to a plethora of specific functional responses in both embryos and adult organisms. Current research is focused on the mechanisms that regulate SMAD activity to evoke cell-type-specific and context-dependent transcriptional programmes. An equally important challenge is understanding the functional role of signal strength and duration. How are these quantitative aspects of the extracellular signal regulated? How are they then sensed and interpreted, and how do they affect responses?

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
          Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology
          Springer Science and Business Media LLC
          1471-0080
          1471-0072
          Dec 2007
          : 8
          : 12
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Developmental Signalling Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PX, UK.
          Article
          nrm2297
          10.1038/nrm2297
          18000526
          7b841958-91cd-4424-8ad5-ee39676187df

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