Mazus lanceifolius ( Mazaceae ) is a perennial herb with opposite leaves and endemic to central China that has not been collected for 130 years. Rediscovery of this enigmatic species in the wild allows for determination of its phylogenetic position within Mazaceae . Phylogenetic reconstruction of Mazaceae based on DNA sequences from four plastid markers ( matK, rbcL, rps16 and trnL- trnF) and nuclear ribosome ITS consistently showed that Mazus was not monophyletic. Mazus lanceifolius is in the most basal clade within Mazaceae , as sister to the remaining species of three recognized genera Dodartia , Lancea and Mazus . These results support the separation of M. lanceifolius from Mazus as a new genus, which was established here as Puchiumazus Bo Li, D.G. Zhang & C.L. Xiang. Meanwhile, a collection from Shennongjia Forestry District of Hubei Province, China, misidentified as “ M. lanceifolius ” in previous molecular study, is here revealed to represent an undescribed species of Mazus , i.e., M. fruticosus Bo Li, D.G. Zhang & C.L. Xiang, sp. nov. Morphologically, Puchiumazus is clearly distinct from the other three genera by having quadrangular to somewhat ribbed stems, and obviously opposite leaves. In addition, we provide a taxonomic key to the four genera of Mazaceae .