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      Macrophage Polarization in Physiological and Pathological Pregnancy

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          Abstract

          The immunology of pregnancy is complex and poorly defined. During the complex process of pregnancy, macrophages secrete many cytokines/chemokines and play pivotal roles in the maintenance of maternal-fetal tolerance. Here, we summarized the current knowledge of macrophage polarization and the mechanisms involved in physiological or pathological pregnancy processes, including miscarriage, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Although current evidence provides a compelling argument that macrophages are important in pregnancy, our understanding of the roles and mechanisms of macrophages in pregnancy is still rudimentary. Since macrophages exhibit functional plasticity, they may be ideal targets for therapeutic manipulation during pathological pregnancy. Additional studies are needed to better define the functions and mechanisms of various macrophage subsets in both normal and pathological pregnancy.

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          Most cited references108

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          Macrophage plasticity, polarization, and function in health and disease.

          Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-α; and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β. M1 and M2 macrophages have different functions and transcriptional profiles. They have unique abilities by destroying pathogens or repair the inflammation-associated injury. It is known that M1/M2 macrophage balance polarization governs the fate of an organ in inflammation or injury. When the infection or inflammation is severe enough to affect an organ, macrophages first exhibit the M1 phenotype to release TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-23 against the stimulus. But, if M1 phase continues, it can cause tissue damage. Therefore, M2 macrophages secrete high amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β to suppress the inflammation, contribute to tissue repair, remodeling, vasculogenesis, and retain homeostasis. In this review, we first discuss the basic biology of macrophages including origin, differentiation and activation, tissue distribution, plasticity and polarization, migration, antigen presentation capacity, cytokine and chemokine production, metabolism, and involvement of microRNAs in macrophage polarization and function. Secondly, we discuss the protective and pathogenic role of the macrophage subsets in normal and pathological pregnancy, anti-microbial defense, anti-tumor immunity, metabolic disease and obesity, asthma and allergy, atherosclerosis, fibrosis, wound healing, and autoimmunity.
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            Role of Human Macrophage Polarization in Inflammation during Infectious Diseases

            Experimental models have often been at the origin of immunological paradigms such as the M1/M2 dichotomy following macrophage polarization. However, this clear dichotomy in animal models is not as obvious in humans, and the separating line between M1-like and M2-like macrophages is rather represented by a continuum, where boundaries are still unclear. Indeed, human infectious diseases, are characterized by either a back and forth or often a mixed profile between the pro-inflammatory microenvironment (dominated by interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokines) and tissue injury driven by classically activated macrophages (M1-like) and wound healing driven by alternatively activated macrophages (M2-like) in an anti-inflammatory environment (dominated by IL-10, Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, chemokine ligand (CCL)1, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, and CCL22). This review brews the complexity of the situation during infectious diseases by stressing on this continuum between M1-like and M2-like extremes. We first discuss the basic biology of macrophage polarization, function, and role in the inflammatory process and its resolution. Secondly, we discuss the relevance of the macrophage polarization continuum during infectious and neglected diseases, and the possibility to interfere with such activation states as a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of such diseases.
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              Anti-inflammatory M2, but not pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages promote angiogenesis in vivo.

              Macrophages show extreme heterogeneity and different subsets have been characterized by their activation route and their function. For instance, macrophage subsets are distinct by acting differently under pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation and cancer. Macrophages also contribute to angiogenesis, but the role of various specific subsets in angiogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated. Matrigel supplemented with macrophage subsets [induced by IFNγ (M1), IL-4 (M2a) or IL-10 (M2c)] was injected subcutaneously in C57BL/6 J mice and analyzed by CD31 staining after 14 days. Increased numbers of endothelial cells and tubular structures were observed in M2-enriched plugs compared to control and other subsets. Additionally, more tubular structures formed in vitro in the presence of M2 macrophages or their conditioned medium. To identify a mechanism for the pro-angiogenic effect, gene expression of angiogenic growth factors was analyzed. Induced expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2) and placental growth factor (Pgf) was observed in M2 macrophages. Using a blocking antibody of PlGF to inhibit M2c induced angiogenesis resulted in mildly reduced (40 %) tube formation whereas neutralization of FGF-2 (M2a) signaling by sFGFR1-IIIc affected tube formation by nearly 75 %. These results indicate that macrophages polarized towards an M2 phenotype have a higher angiogenic potential compared to other subsets. Furthermore, we propose FGF signaling for M2a- and PlGF signaling for M2c-induced angiogenesis as possible working mechanisms, yet, further research should elucidate the exact mechanism for M2-induced angiogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                15 April 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 792
                Affiliations
                Clinical and Translational Research Center, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ursula Grohmann, University of Perugia, Italy

                Reviewed by: Udo Jeschke, Medizinischen Fakultät Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany; Phil Stumbles, Telethon Kids Institute, Australia

                *Correspondence: Xiang-Hong Xu xianghongxu2014@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Immunological Tolerance and Regulation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2019.00792
                6476302
                31037072
                adc0b0bd-6f5f-4358-84d4-21985f0564fb
                Copyright © 2019 Yao, Xu and Jin.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 04 January 2019
                : 26 March 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 139, Pages: 13, Words: 9434
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81730039
                Award ID: 81671460
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology
                macrophage,maternal-fetal interface,polarization,abortion,preeclampsia,preterm birth
                Immunology
                macrophage, maternal-fetal interface, polarization, abortion, preeclampsia, preterm birth

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