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Inhibitory effects of components from root exudates of Welsh onion against root knot nematodes

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      Abstract

      Root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.) are obligate endoparasites that infect many crops and cause severe yield losses. In this research, we studied the effect of Welsh onion, grown as a companion plant, on the resistance of cucumber plants to RKN infection and analyzed the most abundant components of Welsh onion root exudates. The results showed that, when grown with Welsh onion as a companion plant, cucumber roots had 77.0% fewer root knots and egg masses than the control cucumber roots. Welsh onion root exudates were collected and extracted with chloroform, ethyl ether, n-butanol and ethyl acetate. High concentrations of the extracts from the Welsh onion root exudates decreased the hatchability of RKN eggs. In particular, the inhibitory effect of the n-butanol extract was significant and the hatchability of RKN eggs did not exceed 10%. Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the most abundant component in the n-butanol extract was 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol. Treatment with 1.2 mM 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol decreased egg hatchability to 40%, whereas treatment with 9.6 mM or a higher concentration of 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol decreased egg hatchability to less than 10%. In addition, 1.2 mM or a higher concentration of 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol decreased the activity of the second-stage juvenile (J2). Higher 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol concentrations (9.8 and 19.2 mM) were lethal to RKNs to some extent, with death rates greater than 50% at 48 h of treatment. The present results suggest that cultivation with Welsh onion as a companion plant may represent an alternative to the application of synthetic nematicides, with fewer side effects. We confirmed that 4-hydroxy-benzeneethanol is a natural effective nematicide.

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      Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

      The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
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        An improved technique for clearing and staining plant tissues for detection of nematodes.

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          Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

          The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Yantai Agricultural Science Academy of Shandong Province, Yantai, Shandong, P. R. China
            Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, UNITED STATES
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1414-2766, Role: Data curation, Role: Funding acquisition, Role: Project administration, Role: Validation, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Data curation, Role: Methodology, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Data curation, Role: Methodology
            Role: Data curation, Role: Methodology
            Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Methodology
            Role: Data curation, Role: Methodology
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            30 July 2018
            2018
            : 13
            : 7
            30059521
            6066241
            10.1371/journal.pone.0201471
            PONE-D-18-01389
            (Editor)
            © 2018 Li et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Counts
            Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Pages: 15
            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: the National Key Research and Development Program of China
            Award ID: 2016YFD0201000
            Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1414-2766
            Funded by: Research Award Fund for Outstanding Young Scientists in Shandong Province
            Award ID: BS2009NY016
            Award Recipient : ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1414-2766
            This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0201000); Research award fund for outstanding young scientists in Shandong province (BS2009NY016). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Organisms
            Eukaryota
            Plants
            Flowering Plants
            Onions
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Organisms
            Eukaryota
            Plants
            Vegetables
            Onions
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Organisms
            Eukaryota
            Plants
            Vegetables
            Cucumber
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Organisms
            Eukaryota
            Plants
            Vines
            Cucumber
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Agriculture
            Crop Science
            Crops
            Vegetable Crops
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Parasitic Diseases
            Nematode Infections
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Chemical Compounds
            Organic Compounds
            Chloroform
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Organic Chemistry
            Organic Compounds
            Chloroform
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Chemical Compounds
            Organic Compounds
            Ethers
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Organic Chemistry
            Organic Compounds
            Ethers
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Agriculture
            Agricultural Soil Science
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Soil Science
            Agricultural Soil Science
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Organisms
            Eukaryota
            Plants
            Fruits
            Tomatoes
            Custom metadata
            All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file.

            Uncategorized

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