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      Intervención nutricional participativa en adolescentes de enseñanza media del municipio Habana Vieja Translated title: Participative nutritional intervention in middle school adolescents from Habana Vieja municipality

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Introducción: Los hábitos alimentarios no saludables potencian las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen las primeras causas de muerte en Cuba. Objetivos: Evaluar los efectos de una intervención nutricional sobre los cambios en los conocimientos de alimentación-nutrición y hábitos alimentarios en adolescentes. Métodos: Se realizó una intervención nutricional participativa con adolescentes de 12-15 años del municipio Habana Vieja, durante sus tres años curriculares. De los 604 adolescentes que comenzaron el estudio 155 formaron los “grupos promotores” que lideraron las actividades realizadas. Se aplicaron encuestas de conocimientos, consumo y hábitos alimentarios antes y después de la intervención. Para comparar la puntuación alcanzada se utilizó la prueba t de Student para muestras pareadas. Para la comparación entre escuelas se utilizó análisis de la varianza simple y para comparar los porcentajes de respuestas correctas de las preguntas de conocimientos, consumo de hortalizas y azúcar antes y después de la prueba de estimación de diferencias entre proporciones. Se definió como umbral de significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: Los grupos promotores mostraron aumentos significativos de los conocimientos (p < 0,001). Se encontraron diferencias entre escuelas para los grupos promotores (p < 0,001) y para el resto de los estudiantes (p = 0,024). Decreció el azúcar añadido a los refrescos para los grupos promotores (p < 0,001) y a la leche para todos los adolescentes (p = 0,002). No hubo cambios en el hábito de desayunar, en el gusto por alimentos fritos, ni en el consumo de refrescos, frituras, dulces y pizzas. Conclusiones: Las intervenciones de educación nutricional son necesarias para alcanzar patrones dietéticos más saludables y de esta manera contribuir a detener la epidemia de enfermedades no transmisibles, además permiten que los adolescentes tengan un acercamiento al tema alimentación-nutrición.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT Introduction: Non-healthy food habits boost chronic diseases that represent the main death causes in Cuba. Objectives: To assess the effects of a nutritional intervention on the changes in the knowledge of diet-nutrition and food habits of adolescents. Methods: It was carried out a participative nutritional intervention with adolescents from 12 to 15 years from Habana Vieja municipality during their 3 middle school years. From 604 adolescents that started the study, 155 formed the ´´promoter groups´´ which leadered the activities implemented. There were applied knowledge surveys on food consumption and habits before and after the intervention. For comparing the scores, it was used t-Student test for paired samples. It was used the analysis of simple variance for comparing among schools and the percentages of right answers in the knowledge questions, intake of vegetables and sugar before and after of the test for the estimation of differences among proportions. It was defined p<0,05 as the threshold of statistical signification. Results: The promoter groups showed significative increase of knowledge (p<0,001). There were found differences among schools for promoter groups (p<0,001) and for the rest of the students (p<0,024). In the promoter groups decreased the intake of sugar added to soft drinks (p<0,001) and to milk for all the adolescents studied (p<0,002). There were no changes in breakfast habits, liking fried food, or the consumption of soft drinks, fritters, sweets and pizzas. Conclusions: Nutritional education interventions are needed to reach healthier diet patterns and in this way contributing to stop the epidemic of non-communicable diseases; in addition, they allow adolescents to have an approach to food-nutrition topic.

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          The use of social media in nutrition interventions for adolescents and young adults—A systematic review

          Social media is a potentially engaging way to support adolescents and young adults in maintaining healthy diets and learning about nutrition. This review identifies interventions that use social media to promote nutrition, examines their content and features, and evaluates the evidence for the use of such platforms among these groups. We conducted a systematic search of 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ACM Digital Library) for studies that included: 1) adolescents and/or young adults (ages 10–19; ages 18–25); 2) a nutrition education or behavior change intervention component, or outcomes related to nutrition knowledge or dietary changes; and 3) a social media component that allowed users to communicate or share information with peers. 16 articles were identified that included a social media component in a nutrition-related intervention for adolescents or young adults. Interventions included features in 7 categories: social media; communication; tracking health; education; tailoring; social support; and gamification. 11 out of the 16 studies had at least one significant nutrition-related clinical or behavioral outcome. Social media is a promising feature for nutrition interventions for adolescents and young adults. A limited number of studies were identified that included social media. A majority of the identified studies had positive outcomes. We found that most studies utilized only basic social media features, did not evaluate the efficacy of social media components, and did not differentiate between the efficacy of social media compared to other delivery mechanisms.
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            Systematic review and meta-analysis of school-based interventions to improve daily fruit and vegetable intake in children aged 5 to 12 y.

            To our knowledge, no reviews have assessed the impact of a range of multi- and single-component school-based programs on daily fruit and vegetable intake by using a meta-analysis. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of school-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake in children aged 5-12 y. A systematic literature review was carried out to identify randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials that were based in primary schools and designed to increase portions of daily fruit and vegetable intake. MEDLINE, Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Educational Information Centre were searched from 1985 to 2009. Data were extracted, and mean effect sizes were calculated by using random effects models. A total of 27 school-based programs involving 26,361 children were identified that met the inclusion criteria and assessed the daily weight of fruit and vegetable intake combined, fruit intake only, or vegetable intake only, and 21 studies were used in meta-analyses. The results of the meta-analyses indicated an improvement of 0.25 portions (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 portions) of fruit and vegetable daily intake if fruit juice was excluded and an improvement of 0.32 portions (95% CI: 0.14, 0.50 portions) if fruit juice was included. Improvement was mainly due to increases in fruit consumption but not in vegetable consumption. The results of the meta-analyses for fruit (excluding juice) and vegetables separately indicated an improvement of 0.24 portions (95% CI: 0.05, 0.43 portions) and 0.07 portions (95% CI: -0.03, 0.16 portions), respectively. School-based interventions moderately improve fruit intake but have minimal impact on vegetable intake. Additional studies are needed to address the barriers for success in changing dietary behavior, particularly in relation to vegetables.
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              A Systematic Review of the Impact of Multi-Strategy Nutrition Education Programs on Health and Nutrition of Adolescents.

              To update evidence on the impact of multi-strategy nutrition education interventions on adolescents' health and nutrition outcomes and behaviors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcsp
                Revista Cubana de Salud Pública
                Rev. cub. salud pública
                Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas (La Habana, La Habana, Cuba )
                0864-3466
                1561-3127
                September 2020
                : 46
                : 3
                : e2039
                Affiliations
                [2] Habana Vieja, La Habana orgnamePoliclínico Antonio Guiteras Cuba
                [1] La Habana orgnameInstituto Nacional de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología orgdiv1Centro de Nutrición e Higiene de los Alimentos Cuba
                Article
                S0864-34662020000300012 S0864-3466(20)04600300012
                adc38aba-4670-4f85-916c-55aa1350a1de

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 15 April 2019
                : 12 February 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 0
                Product

                SciELO Cuba

                Categories
                INVESTIGACIONES

                adolescentes,educación nutricional,intervención nutricional,educación participativa,prevención de salud,hábitos dietéticos,Adolescents,nutritional education,nutritional intervention,participative education,health prevention,dietetic habits

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