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      Rapid Estrogen and Progesterone Signaling to Dendritic Spine Formation via Cortactin/Wave1-Arp2/3 Complex

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          Abstract

          Background: Synaptic plasticity is the neuronal capacity to modify the function and structure of dendritic spines (DS) in response to neuromodulators. Sex steroids, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are key regulators in the control of DS formation through multiprotein complexes including WAVE1 protein, and are thus fundamental for the development of learning and memory. Objectives: The aim of this work was to evaluate the molecular switch Cdk5 kinase/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the control of WAVE1 protein (phosphorylation/dephosphorylation) and the regulation of WAVE1 and cortactin to the Arp2/3 complex, in response to rapid treatments with E2 and P4 in cortical neuronal cells. Results: Rapid treatment with E2 and P4 modified neuronal morphology and significantly increased the number of DS. This effect was reduced by the use of a Cdk5 inhibitor (Roscovitine). In contrast, inhibition of PP2A with PP2A dominant negative construct significantly increased DS formation, evidencing the participation of kinase/phosphatase in the regulation of WAVE1 in DS formation induced by E2 and P4. Cortactin regulates DS formation via Src and PAK1 kinase induced by E2 and P4. Both cortactin and WAVE1 signal to Arp2/3 complex to synergistically promote actin nucleation. Conclusion: These results suggest that E2 and P4 dynamically regulate neuron morphology through nongenomic signaling via cortactin/WAVE1-Arp2/3 complex. The control of these proteins is tightly orchestrated by phosphorylation, where kinases and phosphatases are essential for actin nucleation and, finally, DS formation. This work provides a deeper understanding of the biological actions of sex steroids in the regulation of DS turnover and neuronal plasticity processes.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Structural dynamics of dendritic spines in memory and cognition.

          Recent studies show that dendritic spines are dynamic structures. Their rapid creation, destruction and shape-changing are essential for short- and long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses on pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex. The onset of long-term potentiation, spine-volume growth and an increase in receptor trafficking are coincident, enabling a 'functional readout' of spine structure that links the age, size, strength and lifetime of a synapse. Spine dynamics are also implicated in long-term memory and cognition: intrinsic fluctuations in volume can explain synapse maintenance over long periods, and rapid, activity-triggered plasticity can relate directly to cognitive processes. Thus, spine dynamics are cellular phenomena with important implications for cognition and memory. Furthermore, impaired spine dynamics can cause psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Activation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization by cortactin.

             B. Zhang,  C Egile,  J. Liu (2001)
            Cortactin, a filamentous actin (F-actin)-associated protein and prominent substrate of Src, is implicated in progression of breast tumours through gene amplification at chromosome 11q13. However, the function of cortactin remains obscure. Here we show that cortactin co-localizes with the Arp2/3 complex, a de novo actin nucleator, at dynamic particulate structures enriched with actin filaments. Cortactin binds directly to the Arp2/3 complex and activates it to promote nucleation of actin filaments. The interaction of cortactin with the Arp2/3 complex occurs at an amino-terminal domain that is rich in acidic amino acids. Mutations in a conserved amino-acid sequence of DDW abolish both the interaction with the Arp2/3 complex and complex activation. The N-terminal domain is not only essential but also sufficient to target cortactin to actin-enriched patches within cells. Interestingly, the ability of cortactin to activate the Arp2/3 complex depends on an activity for F-actin binding, which is almost 20-fold higher than that of the Arp2/3 complex. Our data indicate a new mechanism for activation of actin polymerization involving an enhanced interaction between the Arp2/3 complex and actin filaments.
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              Understanding the broad influence of sex hormones and sex differences in the brain.

              Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells. Hormonal regulation of a variety of signaling pathways as well as direct and indirect effects on gene expression induce spine synapses, up- or downregulate and alter the distribution of neurotransmitter receptors, and regulate neuropeptide expression and cholinergic and GABAergic activity as well as calcium sequestration and oxidative stress. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences and responses to sex hormones in brain regions, which influence functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era of our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2020
                May 2020
                12 September 2019
                : 110
                : 6
                : 535-551
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Signal Transduction and Cell Movement, Institute of Medicine and Experimental Biology of Cuyo (IMBECU), National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Mendoza, Argentina
                Author notes
                *Angel Matias Sanchez, PhD, Laboratory of Signal Transduction and Cell Movement, Institute of Medicine and Experimental Biology of Cuyo (IMBECU), National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Av. Ruiz Leal s/n. Parque Gral, San Martin CC855, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina), E-Mail amsanchez@mendoza-conicet.gov.ar
                Article
                503310 Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:535–551
                10.1159/000503310
                31509830
                © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Pages: 17
                Categories
                Research Article

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