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      Multiple functional defects in peripheral autonomic organs in mice lacking muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene for the M3 subtype

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          Most cited references 30

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          Targeted disruption of the c-src proto-oncogene leads to osteopetrosis in mice.

          To understand the normal, physiological role of the c-src proto-oncogene, a null mutation was introduced into the gene by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. Two independent targeted clones were used to generate chimeras that transmitted the mutated allele to their offspring. Intercrossing of heterozygotes gave rise to live born homozygotes, but most of these mice died within the first few weeks of birth. Histological and hematological examination of the homozygous mutants did not reveal detectable abnormalities in the brain or platelets, where src is most highly expressed. However, these mutants were deficient in bone remodeling, indicating impaired osteoclast function, and developed osteopetrosis. These results demonstrate that src is not required for general cell viability (possibly because of functional overlap with other tyrosine kinases related to src) and uncover an essential role for src in bone formation.
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            The enteric nervous system.

             Janak Goyal,  I Hirano (1996)
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              Loss of Apc heterozygosity and abnormal tissue building in nascent intestinal polyps in mice carrying a truncated Apc gene.

              Mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene appear to be responsible for not only familial adenomatous polyposis but also many sporadic cases of gastrointestinal cancers. Using homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells, we constructed mice that contained a mutant gene encoding a product truncated at a 716 (Apc delta 716). Mendelian transmission of the gene caused most homozygous mice to die in utero before day 8 of gestation. The heterozygotes developed multiple polyps throughout the intestinal tract, mostly in the small intestine. The earliest polyps arose multifocally during the third week after birth, and new polyps continued to appear thereafter. Surprisingly, every nascent polyp consisted of a microadenoma covered with a layer of the normal villous epithelium. These microadenomas originated from single crypts by forming abnormal outpockets into the inner (lacteal) side of the neighboring villi. We carefully dissected such microadenomas from nascent polyps by peeling off the normal epithelium and determined their genotype by PCR: all microadenomas had already lost the wild-type Apc allele, whereas the mutant allele remained unchanged. These results indicate that loss of heterozygosity followed by formation of intravillous microadenomas is responsible for polyposis in Apc delta 716 intestinal mucosa. It is therefore unlikely that the truncated product interacts directly with the wild-type protein and causes the microadenomas by a dominant negative mechanism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                August 15 2000
                August 15 2000
                : 97
                : 17
                : 9579-9584
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.97.17.9579
                © 2000
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