We examined for risk factors for suicide among psychiatric in-patients by comparing 37 in-patients from an Ontario Provincial Psychiatric Hospital who had committed suicide with 37 age and sex matched in-patient controls. Significantly more of the suicide victims had made a previous suicide attempt (62.2 v. 35.1%), suffered from schizophrenia (75.7 v. 35.1%), were involuntary at their last admission (70.3 v. 43.2%) and lived alone (70.3 v. 43.2%). Only six patients committed suicide on the ward. Almost a third of the patients, the majority schizophrenic, committed suicide after having been in the hospital for more than a year. These results suggest that in the psychiatric hospital setting the in-patient at risk for suicide has previously exhibited suicidal behaviour, suffers from schizophrenia, was admitted involuntarily, lives alone and that the risk of suicide may remain high among long-stay schizophrenics.