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      Diuretic Therapy and Resistance in Congestive Heart Failure

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Loop diuretics, Thiazides, Sodium, Edema

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          Abstract

          Treatment of congestive heart failure has changed dramatically during the past 20 years, but diuretic drugs remain an essential component. Diuretics are essential despite the fact that these drugs stimulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) axis and lead to adaptive responses that may be counterproductive. In this paper, new diuretic drugs and new uses of older drugs are discussed. These approaches emphasize low-dose combination therapy and may prove superior to traditional approaches that rely exclusively on loop diuretics. Such approaches aim to prevent adverse compensatory processes that appear to result from chronic diuretic treatment. These include acute and chronic increases in plasma renin activity and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, both of which increase afterload and may tend to increase mortality. They also include adaptive changes in nephron structure and function resulting from diuretic-induced increases in distal sodium load and diuretic-induced neurohormonal stimulation. These adaptations blunt the effectiveness of diuretic therapy. Diuretic strategies that rely on combinations of diuretics are emphasized as a method to prevent resistance. If diuretic resistance does develop, higher-dose combination regimens, continuous diuretic infusions and mechanical ultrafiltration can be used to overcome diuretic adaptations and restore diuretic efficacy. The goal of reducing the extracellular fluid volume with the least stimulation of the RAA axis and minimal changes in nephron architecture can be achieved in many patients.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Diuretic therapy.

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            Comparison of vasopeptidase inhibitor, omapatrilat, and lisinopril on exercise tolerance and morbidity in patients with heart failure: IMPRESS randomised trial

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7380-1
                978-3-318-00820-3
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2001
                2001
                18 January 2002
                : 96
                : 3-4
                : 132-143
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Oregon Health and Science University, and VA Medical Center, Portland, Oreg., USA
                Article
                47397 Cardiology 2001;96:132–143
                10.1159/000047397
                11805380
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 56, Pages: 12
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