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      Effect of age on pro-inflammatory miRNAs contained in mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles

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          Abstract

          Stem cells possess significant age-dependent differences in their immune-response profile. These differences were analysed by Next-Generation Sequencing of six age groups from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. A total of 9,628 genes presenting differential expression between age groups were grouped into metabolic pathways. We focused our research on young, pre-pubertal and adult groups, which presented the highest amount of differentially expressed genes related to inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signalling pathways compared with the newborn group, which was used as a control. Extracellular vesicles extracted from each group were characterized by nanoparticle tracking and flow cytometry analysis, and several micro-RNAs were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction because of their relationship with the pathway of interest. Since miR-21-5p showed the highest statistically significant expression in extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells of the pre-pubertal group, we conducted a functional experiment inhibiting its expression and investigating the modulation of Toll-Like Receptor 4 and their link to damage-associated molecular patterns. Together, these results indicate for the first time that mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles have significant age-dependent differences in their immune profiles.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Proteomic profiling of exosomes: current perspectives.

          Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types in vitro. Recent studies have shown that exosomes are also found in vivo in body fluids such as blood, urine, amniotic fluid, malignant ascites, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, and breast milk. While the biological function of exosomes is still unclear, they can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation and in trans signaling to neighboring cells. Exosome-like vesicles identified in Drosophila (referred to as argosomes) may be potential vehicles for the spread of morphogens in epithelia. The advent of current MS-based proteomic technologies has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular composition of exosomes. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic proteins, it is becoming increasingly apparent that exosomes harbor distinct subsets of proteins that may be linked to cell-type associated functions. The secretion of exosomes by tumor cells and their implication in the transport and propagation of infectious cargo such as prions and retroviruses such as HIV suggest their participation in pathological situations. Interestingly, the recent observation that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be transferred to another cell, and be functional in that new environment, is an exciting new development in the unraveling exosome saga. The present review aims to summarize the physical properties that define exosomes as specific cell-type secreted membrane vesicles.
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            Inositol phosphatase SHIP1 is a primary target of miR-155.

            MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) has emerged as a critical regulator of immune cell development, function, and disease. However, the mechanistic basis for its impact on the hematopoietic system remains largely unresolved. Because miRNAs function by repressing specific mRNAs through direct 3'UTR interactions, we have searched for targets of miR-155 implicated in the regulation of hematopoiesis. In the present study, we identify Src homology-2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) as a direct target of miR-155, and, using gain and loss of function approaches, show that miR-155 represses SHIP1 through direct 3'UTR interactions that have been highly conserved throughout evolution. Repression of endogenous SHIP1 by miR-155 occurred following sustained over-expression of miR-155 in hematopoietic cells both in vitro and in vivo, and resulted in increased activation of the kinase Akt during the cellular response to LPS. Furthermore, SHIP1 was also repressed by physiologically regulated miR-155, which was observed in LPS-treated WT versus miR-155(-/-) primary macrophages. In mice, specific knockdown of SHIP1 in the hematopoietic system following retroviral delivery of a miR-155-formatted siRNA against SHIP1 resulted in a myeloproliferative disorder, with striking similarities to that observed in miR-155-expressing mice. Our study unveils a molecular link between miR-155 and SHIP1 and provides evidence that repression of SHIP1 is an important component of miR-155 biology.
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              Comparative Analysis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Umbilical Cord Blood as Sources of Cell Therapy

               Hye Jin,  Yun Bae,  Miyeon Kim (2013)
              Various source-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered for cell therapeutics in incurable diseases. To characterize MSCs from different sources, we compared human bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) for surface antigen expression, differentiation ability, proliferation capacity, clonality, tolerance for aging, and paracrine activity. Although MSCs from different tissues have similar levels of surface antigen expression, immunosuppressive activity, and differentiation ability, UCB-MSCs had the highest rate of cell proliferation and clonality, and significantly lower expression of p53, p21, and p16, well known markers of senescence. Since paracrine action is the main action of MSCs, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of each MSC under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Co-culture of UCB-MSCs with LPS-treated rat alveolar macrophage, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and IL-8 via angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). Using recombinant Ang-1 as potential soluble paracrine factor or its small interference RNA (siRNA), we found that Ang-1 secretion was responsible for this beneficial effect in part by preventing inflammation. Our results demonstrate that primitive UCB-MSCs have biological advantages in comparison to adult sources, making UCB-MSCs a useful model for clinical applications of cell therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                06 March 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Grupo de Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa (TCMR-CHUAC). CIBER-BBN/ISCIII. Servicio de Reumatología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), SERGAS, Departamento de Medicina, Facultade de Oza, Universidade de A Coruña (UDC) , As Xubias, 15006, A Coruña, Spain
                [2 ]Grupo Fisiopatología Endocrina, Nutricional y Médica (FENM-CHUAC), Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), SERGAS, Departamento de Medicina, Facultade de Oza, Universidade de A Coruña (UDC) , As Xubias, 15006, A Coruña, Spain
                [3 ]Cardiology Department, Health in Code , As Xubias, 15006, A Coruña, Spain
                [4 ]Experimental Rheumatology, Radboudumc University Medical Center , Huispost 272, route 272, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [*]

                Present address: Marine Research Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Vigo, Spain.

                Article
                srep43923
                10.1038/srep43923
                5338265
                28262816
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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