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      Implicit measures in social cognition. research: their meaning and use.

      1 ,
      Annual review of psychology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          Behavioral scientists have long sought measures of important psychological constructs that avoid response biases and other problems associated with direct reports. Recently, a large number of such indirect, or "implicit," measures have emerged. We review research that has utilized these measures across several domains, including attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes, and discuss their predictive validity, their interrelations, and the mechanisms presumably underlying their operation. Special attention is devoted to various priming measures and the Implicit Association Test, largely due to their prevalence in the literature. We also attempt to clarify several unresolved theoretical and empirical issues concerning implicit measures, including the nature of the underlying constructs they purport to measure, the conditions under which they are most likely to relate to explicit measures, the kinds of behavior each measure is likely to predict, their sensitivity to context, and the construct's potential for change.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Annu Rev Psychol
          Annual review of psychology
          Annual Reviews
          0066-4308
          0066-4308
          2003
          : 54
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1222, USA. Fazio@psy.ohio-state.edu
          Article
          101601.145225
          10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145225
          12172003
          adee6d7a-dd09-40f9-8578-4e377a6cd1e4
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