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      Sexually Explicit Online Media and Sexual Risk Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

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          This study aimed to describe sexually explicit online media (SEOM) consumption among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and examine associations between exposure to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in SEOM and engagement in both UAI and serodiscordant UAI. MSM in the U.S. who accessed a men-seeking-men website in the past year (N = 1,170) were recruited online for a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of sexual risk and SEOM consumption. In the 3 months prior to interview, more than half (57 %) of the men reported viewing SEOM one or more times per day and almost half (45 %) reported that at least half of the SEOM they viewed portrayed UAI. Compared to participants who reported that 0-24 % of the SEOM they viewed showed UAI, participants who reported that 25-49, 50-74, or 75-100 % of the SEOM they viewed portrayed UAI had progressively increasing odds of engaging in UAI and serodiscordant UAI in the past 3 months. As SEOM has become more ubiquitous and accessible, research should examine causal relations between SEOM consumption and sexual risk-taking among MSM as well as ways to use SEOM for HIV prevention.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Risk as feelings.

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            Meta-analytic examination of online sex-seeking and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men.

            To estimate the percentage of men who have sex with men (MSM) who have used the Internet to look for sex partners and to examine the prevalence of risky sex among MSM who have and have not sought partners online. Meta-analyses were conducted on findings from published English-language studies. High-risk sex was self-reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Analyses were stratified by method of study recruitment (online versus offline venues) and participants' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. In studies that recruited MSM offline, a weighted mean, based on 15 findings, indicated that 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35.2%-45.2%) of MSM had used the Internet to look for sex partners. In 3 findings from offline studies that stratified by participant HIV status, the weighted-mean percentage was higher among HIV-positive (49.6%; 95% CI, 44.9%-54.3%) than HIV-negative/unknown MSM (41.2%; 95% CI, 36.8%-45.6%). UAI with male sex partners was more likely among MSM who sought partners online than MSM who did not (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.40; k = 11). This group difference was observed for UAI with HIV-serodiscordant as well as HIV-seroconcordant partners, particularly among HIV-positive study participants. HIV-serodiscordant UAI was not more prevalent with partners met online than offline. A substantial percentage of MSM use the Internet to look for sex partners, and those who do are more likely to engage in unprotected sex. Additional research is needed to determine whether the Internet may increase risk behavior beyond that which occurs when men meet partners at offline venues.
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              Prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse among HIV-diagnosed MSM in the United States: a meta-analysis.

               Marc Jacobs,  Nicole Crepaz,   (2009)
              To integrate the empirical findings on the prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Comprehensively searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO (2000-2007), hand searching bibliographic lists, and contacting researchers. Thirty US studies (n = 18,121) met selection criteria. Analyses were conducted using random-effects models and meta-regression. The prevalence of UAI was considerably higher with HIV-seropositive partners (30%; 95% confidence interval 25-36) than with serostatus unknown (16%; 95% confidence interval 13-21) or HIV-seronegative partners (13%; 95% confidence interval 10-16). The prevalence of UAI with either a serostatus unknown or HIV-seronegative partner was 26%. The UAI prevalence did not differ by the length of the behavioral recall window but did vary by the type of anal intercourse (insertive vs. receptive). Studies with the following features had a lower UAI prevalence: recruiting participants before 2000, MSM of color being the majority of study sample, recruiting participants from medical settings, using random or systematic sampling methods, and having interviewers administer the questionnaire. Being on antiretroviral therapy, having an undetectable viral load, and reporting more than 90% medication adherence were not associated with UAI. Most HIV-diagnosed MSM protect partners during sexual activity, but a sizeable percentage continues to engage in sexual behaviors that place others at risk for HIV infection and place themselves at risk for other sexually transmitted infections. Prevention with positives programs continues to be urgently needed for MSM in the United States.

                Author and article information

                Archives of Sexual Behavior
                Arch Sex Behav
                Springer Nature
                May 2014
                January 24 2014
                : 43
                : 4
                : 833-843
                © 2014


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