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      Physiology of the lung in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

      , , , , ,

      European Respiratory Review

      European Respiratory Society (ERS)

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          Abstract

          The clinical expression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is directly related to multiple alterations in lung function. These alterations derive from a complex disease process affecting all compartments of the lower respiratory system, from the conducting airways to the lung vasculature. In this article we review the profound alterations in lung mechanics (reduced lung compliance and lung volumes), pulmonary gas exchange (reduced diffusing capacity, increased dead space ventilation, chronic arterial hypoxaemia) and airway physiology (increased cough reflex and increased airway volume), as well as pulmonary haemodynamics related to IPF. The relative contribution of these alterations to exertional limitation and dyspnoea in IPF is discussed.

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          Most cited references 106

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          Wireless pulmonary artery haemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure: a randomised controlled trial.

          Results of previous studies support the hypothesis that implantable haemodynamic monitoring systems might reduce rates of hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. We undertook a single-blind trial to assess this approach. Patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure, irrespective of the left ventricular ejection fraction, and a previous hospital admission for heart failure were enrolled in 64 centres in the USA. They were randomly assigned by use of a centralised electronic system to management with a wireless implantable haemodynamic monitoring (W-IHM) system (treatment group) or to a control group for at least 6 months. Only patients were masked to their assignment group. In the treatment group, clinicians used daily measurement of pulmonary artery pressures in addition to standard of care versus standard of care alone in the control group. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of heart-failure-related hospitalisations at 6 months. The safety endpoints assessed at 6 months were freedom from device-related or system-related complications (DSRC) and freedom from pressure-sensor failures. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00531661. In 6 months, 83 heart-failure-related hospitalisations were reported in the treatment group (n=270) compared with 120 in the control group (n=280; rate 0·31 vs 0·44, hazard ratio [HR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·60-0·84, p<0·0001). During the entire follow-up (mean 15 months [SD 7]), the treatment group had a 39% reduction in heart-failure-related hospitalisation compared with the control group (153 vs 253, HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·55-0·75; p<0·0001). Eight patients had DSRC and overall freedom from DSRC was 98·6% (97·3-99·4) compared with a prespecified performance criterion of 80% (p<0·0001); and overall freedom from pressure-sensor failures was 100% (99·3-100·0). Our results are consistent with, and extend, previous findings by definitively showing a significant and large reduction in hospitalisation for patients with NYHA class III heart failure who were managed with a wireless implantable haemodynamic monitoring system. The addition of information about pulmonary artery pressure to clinical signs and symptoms allows for improved heart failure management. CardioMEMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A common MUC5B promoter polymorphism and pulmonary fibrosis.

            The mutations that have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis account for only a small proportion of the population risk. Using a genomewide linkage scan, we detected linkage between idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and a 3.4-Mb region of chromosome 11p15 in 82 families. We then evaluated genetic variation in this region in gel-forming mucin genes expressed in the lung among 83 subjects with familial interstitial pneumonia, 492 subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 322 controls. MUC5B expression was assessed in lung tissue. Linkage and fine mapping were used to identify a region of interest on the p-terminus of chromosome 11 that included gel-forming mucin genes. The minor-allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs35705950, located 3 kb upstream of the MUC5B transcription start site, was present at a frequency of 34% among subjects with familial interstitial pneumonia, 38% among subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 9% among controls (allelic association with familial interstitial pneumonia, P=1.2×10(-15); allelic association with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, P=2.5×10(-37)). The odds ratios for disease among subjects who were heterozygous and those who were homozygous for the minor allele of this SNP were 6.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 12.0) and 20.8 (95% CI, 3.8 to 113.7), respectively, for familial interstitial pneumonia and 9.0 (95% CI, 6.2 to 13.1) and 21.8 (95% CI, 5.1 to 93.5), respectively, for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. MUC5B expression in the lung was 14.1 times as high in subjects who had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as in those who did not (P<0.001). The variant allele of rs35705950 was associated with up-regulation in MUC5B expression in the lung in unaffected subjects (expression was 37.4 times as high as in unaffected subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele, P<0.001). MUC5B protein was expressed in lesions of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A common polymorphism in the promoter of MUC5B is associated with familial interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that dysregulated MUC5B expression in the lung may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.).
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              A multidimensional index and staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

              Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic lung disease with an overall poor prognosis. A simple-to-use staging system for IPF may improve prognostication, help guide management, and facilitate research. To develop a multidimensional prognostic staging system for IPF by using commonly measured clinical and physiologic variables. A clinical prediction model was developed and validated by using retrospective data from 3 large, geographically distinct cohorts. Interstitial lung disease referral centers in California, Minnesota, and Italy. 228 patients with IPF at the University of California, San Francisco (derivation cohort), and 330 patients at the Mayo Clinic and Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital (validation cohort). The primary outcome was mortality, treating transplantation as a competing risk. Model discrimination was assessed by the c-index, and calibration was assessed by comparing predicted and observed cumulative mortality at 1, 2, and 3 years. Four variables were included in the final model: gender (G), age (A), and 2 lung physiology variables (P) (FVC and Dlco). A model using continuous predictors (GAP calculator) and a simple point-scoring system (GAP index) performed similarly in derivation (c-index of 70.8 and 69.3, respectively) and validation (c-index of 69.1 and 68.7, respectively). Three stages (stages I, II, and III) were identified based on the GAP index with 1-year mortality of 6%, 16%, and 39%, respectively. The GAP models performed similarly in pooled follow-up visits (c-index ≥71.9). Patients were drawn from academic centers and analyzed retrospectively. The GAP models use commonly measured clinical and physiologic variables to predict mortality in patients with IPF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Respiratory Review
                Eur Respir Rev
                European Respiratory Society (ERS)
                0905-9180
                1600-0617
                February 28 2018
                March 31 2018
                January 24 2018
                March 31 2018
                : 27
                : 147
                : 170062
                Article
                10.1183/16000617.0062-2017
                © 2018

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